Volume 8, Issue 2 / Spring 2014
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From the Editor
Dr. William O. Welsh, III

Greetings, fellow travelers.

In this issue, although we continue to offer a broad variety of leadership research and theory, we are beginning to see a pattern of inquiry emerging that challenges the dominant leadership understanding discourse. This issue begins with an American consideration of a follower compliance framework followed by a values-based Dutch study raising critical questions about alignment with follower values. Next we offer a historically-based consideration of supportive supervisor communication and member performance relationships followed, in turn, by a Danish review and re-synthesis of the shared leadership landscape.

Another historically-based study follows, seeking to add rigor to our servant leadership understanding in relationship to workforce turnover. Our penultimate article is an exceptional consideration of values deemed at the core of a coherent leadership understanding. Our final article is the first direct response to our 2012 challenge to provide a theory-based alternative to the dominant discourse. [more]

Fostering Transformative Global Leadership: An Undergraduate Level Approach
Amy Forbes

In 2009, Joyce Osland wrote, “Given the impact and challenges of globalization, global warming and the current economic crisis, it is impossible to ignore the need for effective global leadership” (2009, p. 1). Once just a need within the international business community to train leaders who could “develop global strategies, expand into international markets and compete in the global marketplace” (Mendenhall, Reiche, Bird, & Osland, 2012, p. 5), the need for global leadership has only intensified over the last two decades. Global leaders are now needed across the private, public and non-profit sectors. “Growth in ‘global work’, defined as situations in which workers collaborate across national boundaries, is unprecedented” (Mendenhall, Reiche, Bird, & Osland, 2012, p. 5). [more]

If at First You Don’t Succeed: A Framework for Understanding Follower Compliance in Multiple Influence Attempts
John E. Barbuto, Jr. & Kevin Warneke

We propose a framework for understanding the influence process in multiple influence attempts. The framework incorporates the constructs of influence tactics, bases of social power, work motivation, compliance and commitment, and modes of conflict management to arrive at a sequential illustration of the influence process through primary and secondary influence attempts. Propositions are developed and directions for future research are explored. [more]
An Explorative Study on the Connection Between Ethical Leadership, Prototypicality and Organizational Misbehavior in a Dutch Fire Service
Annette de Wolde, Jelle Groenendaal, Ira Helsloot, & Arjen Schmidt

In this article, we examine the relationship between ethical leadership and organizational misbehavior in a Dutch fire service and the extent to which prototypicality mediates this relationship. It is found that ethical leadership of battalion chiefs is statistically negatively related to the occurrence of self-reported disobedience of 61 crew commanders. Being a group prototype or not seems to fully explain this effect, as we found a full mediation effect. In addition, we found no statistically significant connection between the three components of ethical leadership, role modeling, rewards and discipline, and communicating about ethics and values, and the self-reported organizational misbehavior. Consequently, the question arises whether leaders who are viewed as “ethical” leaders simply have more influence on the unethical behavior of subordinates due to their leadership or that their norms and values just more closely fit to the professional norms and values of subordinates. [more]
Supportive Supervisor Communication as a Mediator of the Leader-Member Exchange and Subordinate Performance Relationship
Daniel F. Michael

The focus of this research is on the relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX), supportive supervisor communication (SSC), and subordinate job performance. It was predicted that the relationship between subordinate ratings of LMX quality and supervisor ratings of subordinate performance would be mediated by subordinate ratings of SSC. Specifically, it was hypothesized that LMX would directly influence SSC, and SSC would directly influence two facets of contextual performance: interpersonal facilitation and job dedication. It was also hypothesized that job dedication would directly influence task performance, thus mediating the relationship between SSC and task performance. Thus, SSC was expected to mediate the relationship between LMX and contextual and task performance. Structural equation modeling results based on 243 supervisor-subordinate dyads from the banking industry provided substantial support for the proposed model. [more]
Mapping the Landscape of Shared Leadership: A Review and Synthesis
John P. Ulhøi & Sabine Müller

As can be seen from the substantial increase in the volume and scope of leadership publications over the last ten to fifteen years, leadership is a construct with important social and relational properties. Shared leadership in particular has attracted considerable attention from organization and management scholars, although there has been surprisingly little focus on the key structuring processes and mechanisms that enable shared leadership. The aim of this paper is to rectify this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers. [more]
Servant leadership and Employee Commitment to a Supervisor
Shane Sokoll

A relationship between employee commitment to a supervisor and reduced levels of employee turnover has been found in previous research studies (Vandenberghe & Bentein, 2009). Since turnover is often associated with high costs, understanding how to retain valuable human resource talent is of increasing importance. In this study, Fields and Winston’s (2010) servant leadership instrument, Becker, Billings, Eveleth, and Gilbert’s (1996) employee commitment to a supervisor scale, and Stogdill’s (1963) supervisor initiation of structure subscale are used to measure the predictive effect of servant leadership on employee commitment to a supervisor, beyond the effect of a supervisor’s task-oriented behavior. One hundred and forty nine of 207 fulltime employees from a university in the U.S. responded to a web-hosted survey that was distributed via email. A multiple regression analysis was conducted that controlled for employee age, employee tenure with the supervisor, employee gender, employee/supervisor gender similarity/dissimilarity, and supervisor task-oriented behavior. Servant leadership was found to have a significant (p < .001) effect on employee commitment to a supervisor, shown by an increased R-Square value of 0.224 (22.4%). This study adds empirical evidence to the construct validity of servant leadership theory and the positive influence said behavior has on employee commitment. [more]
The Emerging Significance of Values Based Leadership: A Literature Review
Mary Kay Copeland

The emergence of the 21st century was plagued with extensive, evasive and disheartening leadership failures. Moral and ethical deficiencies were prevalent in many charismatic, dynamic and seemingly transformational leaders that had risen to prominence in both the public and private sectors. In response, leadership and management theorists began to place a renewed emphasis on the importance of ethics and morality in exemplary leaders, and a plethora of values based leadership (VBL) theories emerged. VBL behaviors are styles that have a moral, authentic and ethical dimension. This study examines the prevailing literature and research on the various constructs rooted in VBL. It identifies three constructs: (a) authentic (Avolio & Gardner, 2005; Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, & Walumbwa, 2005; George, 2003; Luthans & Avolio, 2003), (b) ethical (Brown et al., 2005), and transformational leadership (Bass, 1985; Bass, 1990; Bass & Avolio, 1990; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999) that are considered the most emphasized behaviors in the VBL literature and examines the literature streams and progression of research for each of these VBL theories. The study identifies literature that supports that when these VBL behaviors are found in leaders, the leaders are evaluated as more effective by subordinates. The purpose is to provide a summary of the seminal VBL literature to date and provide recommendations for future research and study. [more]
Why the Positional Leadership Perspective Hinders the Ability of Organizations to Deal with Complex and Dynamic Situations
Charles G. Sanders

The 21st century competitive global environment is dynamic, complex, and multi-cultural, and necessitates a more rapid response to changes to survive (Rost, 1991). The most effective approach for dealing with this is to involve employees in the various leadership processes for the organization (Pearce & Conger, 2003; Raelin, 2003). However, the leadership role described is not the common view of leadership based on authority. Rather, the required leadership is based on everyday influence processes by anyone in the organization derived from knowledge and the recognition for the need for a specific change. This paper shows how the perpetuated perspective of leadership as something reserved for persons of authority actually inhibits the very organization behaviors called for by the complex and dynamic situations in which they work. [more]

Please note: Views and opinions expressed in the articles published in the International Journal of Leadership Studies (IJLS) represent each author's research and viewpoint and do not necessarily represent IJLS or its sponsors. IJLS and its sponsors make no representations about the accuracy of the information contained in published manuscripts and disclaims any and all responsibility or liability resulting from the information contained in the IJLS.

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