Dissertations (1999-Present)

The final requirement for School of Business & Leadership Ph.D. students is the scholarly research dissertation. Below is a list of all dissertations published up to this point.

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To access full-text versions of these dissertations, please contact your university's library or UMI Dissertation Services. Regent students, staff and faculty may access full-text versions from the Regent University Library.


Anderson, Susan E.

  • Breaking Through the Mental Barriers of an Entrepreneur

    Susan E. Anderson


    The diversity in entrepreneurial activity has been shown in literature to represent a complex set of knowledge, resources, and skills yet also has been shown to prevent scholars from finding the universal chords intrinsic to becoming a successful entrepreneur. This dissertation specifically looks at the mental barriers faced by entrepreneurs through a qualitative, phenomenological design, employing interviews to collect data from the perspective of people's experiences. The study explores the question: What breaks through the mental barriers of an entrepreneur? Expanding on the distinction made in this exploration that there is a difference between internal factors and the placement of external influences related to the process required for breaking through Chopra's (1999) mental barriers of (a) getting past one's initial reaction and (b) creating a desired change, this exploration confirmed that a mental barrier breakthrough is possible only by those contenders to a process to be completed. The findings further articulate that depending on one's willingness and specific path taken, results will reflect either long- or short-term benefits. These findings provide a significant contribution in understanding those areas to develop in regard to one's ability to break through these mental barriers and where future research may be most beneficial. This dissertation also provides a way for these developments to be articulated into a practical application. Learning the process for breaking through mental barriers takes time and requires exploration, experience, and knowing what to remove or avoid when seeking a clear vision to assess an idea, situation, or obstacle. Future research considerations are also provided.

Akinyele, Olofunmilayo O.

  • Understanding Servant Leadership as a Phenomenon Through the Lived Experiences of Leaders of Private Organizations and NGOs in Ibadan and Lagos in Southwest Nigeria: A Qualitative Study Using Q-Sorts

    Olofunmilayo O. Akinyele


    This study examines the phenomenon of servant leadership in the Nigerian context. It sought to understand the phenomenon from the lived experiences of leaders of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and private organizations in Ibadan and Lagos in the Southwest region, particularly given the pre-Colonial legacy in the Ibadan kingship-leadership structure. The study (a) discusses Nigeria as the context for the study and (b) identifies and explains differences in pre-Colonial leadership styles of the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba ethnic communities as well as contemporary organizations in Nigeria and the challenges they face. The study uses the framework of Patterson's (2003) servant leadership model, particularly service, vision, and humility which have been shown to be common descriptive elements of servant leaders (Hale & Fields, 2007; Ihenacho, 2011), and Hofstede's (2001) cultural dimensions of (a) individualism vs. collectivism and (b) power distance. The researcher collected data by (a) interviewing senior executives, (b) examining relevant historical and leadership documents, and (c) keeping field notes and a reflective journal. The researcher then conducted a Q-sort. The data were analyzed using Schmolck and Atkinson's (2000) PQMethod software, deriving three factors of (a) Ǫmǫluabi serving with collaboration and humility, (b) chief servant leading by example with humility and (c) passionate visionary humbly modeling the way through service. Implications for Nigeria, leadership theory and practice, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

Beason, Oral

  • Emotional Intelligence, Leader-Member Exchange, Job Stress, and Job Satisfaction: A Study of Practicing Attorneys

    Oral Beason


    Some levels of job stress result in productivity, ingenuity, and satisfaction. However, as job stress increases, job satisfaction tends to decline and compromise work results. Internal individual differences and external contextual factors may buffer the effects of negative aspects of stress. This study investigated the buffering effects of emotional intelligence (EI) and leader-member exchange (LMX) on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. A structured survey questionnaire was used to gather data from 214 attorneys licensed in the State of Florida. The study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would show that the interaction of EI and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Similarly, the study investigated whether the results of moderated multiple regression analysis of the collected data would also show that the interaction LMX and job stress would have buffered the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. However, the results of the study did not support a finding of moderating effects on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship. Analysis of the data revealed that EI and LMX had a mediating effect on the independent variable and dependent variable relationship of the participants. Implications of the study on job stress theories of practice, research methodologies, conceptual limitations, and suggested directions for future research are also discussed.

    Keywords: emotional intelligence, leader-member exchange, job stress, job satisfaction, and attorneys

Brubaker, Timothy

  • Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship: A Moderated Mediation Model of Perceived Leader Effectiveness and Exchange Ideology in Rwanda

    Timothy Brubaker


    What effects do reciprocity expectations have on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship? The present study proposed and tested a moderated mediation model of the effects of servant leadership on two types of organizational citizenship behaviors (altruism and courtesy). First, the study hypothesized that perceived leader effectiveness mediates the relationship between servant leadership and these two types of organizational citizenship (H1). The study further hypothesized that employee exchange ideology moderates the indirect effects of perceived leader effectiveness in each of these models (H2). Three theoretical trajectories explain the proposed relationships between study variables: social learning theory (Bandura, 1977), cognitive categorization theory (Rosch, 1975), and reciprocity/clientelism (Gouldner, 1960; Landé, 1977). Adult Rwandans working in nongovernment settings comprise the sample for this study. Data collection yielded 194 usable responses (N = 194) which were analyzed based on study hypotheses. Data analysis showed adequate support for the full mediation effects of perceived leader effectiveness on the relationship between servant leadership and both forms of organizational citizenship. However, concerning the moderating effects of exchange ideology in the mediation models, analysis demonstrated that exchange ideology only moderated the mediation model with respect to courtesy and not altruism. The presentation concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research. This study makes an important contribution to leadership theory by better understanding the nature of leader-follower relationships in Africa and the importance of reciprocity in these relationships.

Bryant, David W.

  • Exploring the Differences of Faith Manifestations and Entrepreneurial Orientations of Catholics and Protestants

    David W. Bryant


    There is a dearth of quantitative research that considers the integration of Christian faith and entrepreneurship. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to explore the differences of faith manifestations and entrepreneurial orientations of Catholics and Protestants at work. Based on the foundational relationships of sacred scripture, sacred tradition, and natural law, Catholics embrace a social magisterium that makes them unique not only among other religions but also within the Christian faith. If Catholics are different from Protestants, there should be observable differences in faith manifestations and entrepreneurial behaviors for Catholics and Protestants at work. Utilizing The Integration Box and the Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation instruments, no statistically significant differences for Catholics and Protestants were found. The theoretical implications of this research reveal that the hypothesized Catholic versus Protestant relationship at work may be a false dilemma. From a Catholic perspective, the practical implications of this research reiterate the need for radical Catholic reeducation of the tenets present in Catholic social teaching. Directions for future research are presented.

Clawson, Michelle

  • Leadership Malpractice in Higher Education: Effects of Organizational Ethical Culture and Followers' Perceived Organizational Support on Abusive Supervision and Vicarious Abusive Supervision

    Michelle Clawson


    There has been a growing need to stop bullying from leaders in organizations and to support targets of this often ignored phenomenon. The death of Kevin Morrissey, the managing editor of the University of Virginia's Virginia Quarterly Review, served as the catalyst in this research. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study was to examine the effects of organizational ethical culture (i.e., ethical values, procedural justice, and interactional justice) and followers' perception of organizational support on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in institutions of higher education. Using a sample of 747 administrators, faculty, and staff from 11 colleges and universities in the southeastern region of the United States, organizational ethical culture was found to make the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor of abusive supervision. Followers' perceived organizational support also made a contribution; however, it was not significant. When examining the individual dimensions measured in organizational ethical culture, interactional justice was highly related to abusive supervision. In relation to vicarious abusive supervision, organizational ethical culture made the largest statistically significant contribution and was the best predictor, although followers' perceived organizational support made a statistically significant contribution. Position level (i.e., supervisors and nonsupervisors) did not differ in terms of the followers' tolerance of abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision. On the other hand, an employee's rank had an influence on abusive supervision. To the researcher's knowledge, there were no studies on abusive supervision and vicarious abusive supervision in the postsecondary education field in the United States. The intent was to demonstrate if supervisory bullying occurred in a higher education setting and to bring awareness of incivility in academe. Implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and limitations of the study. Future directions for research of abusive supervision in higher education are suggested.

    Keywords: Supervisory bullying, abusive supervision, vicarious abusive supervision, perceived organizational support, organizational ethical culture

Daniels, Michael J.

  • Measuring Individual Capacity to Lead: Development and Validation of a Theory Based Instrument

    Michael J. Daniels


    Few studies have presented a conceptually complete model describing capacity to be a leader. This study developed and tested a measure that operationalizes individual capacity to lead. The measure is based on integrating the conceptual models of Popper and Mayseless (2007), Dries and Pepermans (2012), and Chan and Drasgow (2001). The resulting measure may significantly improve an organization's ability to select individuals for training and development who have the highest capacity to succeed as leaders. Ultimately, this may prove useful for human resources selection, development initiatives, succession planning, and recruiting. This measurement tool was developed using a four-step process: (a) item development, (b) scale identification and validation through use of a Delphi panel, (c) item reduction and identification of underlying dimensions through use of a large sample (N = 467) of working adults, and (d) assessment of construct validity of the capacity-to-lead instrument. The measure has three components: follower-focused (α = .961), focused on leading and influencing others; learning agility (α = .925), focused on the idea of a leader being adaptable to changing environments, situations, and stimuli; and intellectual curiosity (α = .891), focused on a leader having a curiosity that stems from an intellectual framework and pursuit. Future research ideas, limitations of the study, and practical applications for this instrument are provided.

Emuwa, Amara

  • Examining the Endorsement of Authentic Leadership, Organizational Commitment and Perceived Leader Effectiveness among Nigerian Employees

    Amara Emuwa


    This study examined the endorsement of authentic leadership and its relationships with follower outcomes of perceived leader effectiveness and organizational commitment among employees in Nigeria. The study contributes to the incremental understanding of cross-cultural leadership behaviors by comparing the relationship of authentic leadership with desired outcomes in Nigeria to similar relationships observed in previous studies in U.S. employees. In addition, this research examined the extent to which contingent leadership behaviors interact with authentic leadership to strengthen its relationship with employee outcomes. This study used cross-sectional survey data collected from a sample of 212 Nigerian employees across multiple industrial sectors.

Fields, Rodney L.

  • The Relationship between Perceptions of Diversity Climate and Value Congruence/Person-Organization Fit: A Focus on Nonminority and Minority Employees' Differences in Perceptions

    Rodney L. Fields


    This quantitative study advances the theoretical discussion of affirming diversity climate in organizations. The study had a sample of 120 participants from various organizations throughout the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia. A three-model hierarchical multiple regression and an independent-samples t test (special case of one-way analysis of variance) were used to test the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/person-organization (P-O) fit while comparing perceptions between nonminority and minority employees. The results support a statistical significance for the following two claims: (a) lower perceptions of diversity climate lead to lower P-O fit and (b) perception of diversity climate differs by ethnicity (nonminority vs. minority). Future research is needed to test other variables that contribute to the relationship between perceptions of diversity climate and value congruence/P-O fit, including expanding the regional scope of participants and organizations and expanding the research globally. Diversity offers a rich platform to further examine the benefits and challenges of the effect diversity, now and in the future, and how it impacts employees and organizations.

Frederick, Heidi R.

  • The Effect of the Accountability Variables of Responsibility, Openness, and Answerability on Authentic Leadership

    Heidi R. Frederick


    One of the unique aspects of authentic leadership that scholars have posited is the possibility that it can be developed (Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008). However, the paucity of research on authentic leadership as a dependent variable reveals a gap that must be addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional quantitative study is to examine the proactive three-factor accountability theory of responsibility, openness, and answerability practices (Wood & Winston, 2007) as an antecedent to authentic leadership. Using survey results from a sample of full-time employees at private Christian higher education institutions in the United States, a predictive relationship was investigated through multiple regression analysis and a subsequent hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicated that the variables of responsibility, openness, and answerability predict the perception of authentic leadership. One-way analyses of variance, t tests, and post hoc tests were also performed to identify differences in demographic data. Significant differences were found in tenure with the leader. As was expected, high correlation was found among all four scales. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed as well as strengths and weaknesses of the study. Future directions for research of authentic leadership and proactive accountability are suggested.

Gilbert, Michael

  • Social Identity Theory and the Prototypical Ecclesial Leader in Paul's Letters to Timothy

    Michael Gilbert


    One does not need to look far to notice that a leadership crisis is occurring in nearly every industry and field. Leadership is central to the success of a quality-led organization, requiring support and commitment from top management. Despite attempts or perceptions that reduce the significance for a theory of ecclesial leadership, the modern leadership crises under discussion continue to reveal a more desperate need for an appropriate model of ecclesial leadership like never before. This study employs a joint methodology of social-scientific criticism and sociohistorical analysis of the epistles of 1 and 2 Timothy. The results contribute to the reduction of the paucity in literature concerning the role of social identity theory within the field of ecclesial leadership. Beyond social identity theory, the Apostle Paul employed a social identity model of leadership, through leadership succession, to promote Timothy as the prototypical leader over the ecclesia at Ephesus. From the results, the model of prototypical ecclesial leadership constructs surface comprising of (a) mimetic apprenticeship, (b) shared suffering, (c) confronting error, (d) spiritual formation, (e) wealth management, (f) public spirituality, and (g) kingdom focus. The model construct of prototypical ecclesial leadership attempts to inform the divinity academe of the solid gains made by the leadership academe in regard to the contributing construct of the Pauline prototype.

    Keywords: groups, social identity theory, prototypicality, ecclesial leadership, Apostle Paul, 1 and 2 Timothy

Hawkins, Nicole

  • Examining the Leader Development Process: The Development and Validation of a Leader Education and Development Model

    Nicole Hawkins


    The premise of the study was to maximize the capacity of human capital and social capital relationships in organizational leaders through a multistage educational model. Traditional leader development efforts have tended to focus on the collective unit of leadership within an organization, that is, how leaders and followers interact for the greater good of the group or organization. The model suggested in this research encompasses individual leader development and interpersonal content. This research operationalized a framework for a multistage leader development model for developing individual leaders, maximizing leadership capacity, and gaining insight into the evolving process of leader development. The nascent literature of leader development theory and the multidimensional and ever-evolving construct of leader development was also examined. Utilizing Kegan's (1980) framework of constructive-developmental theory as validated by McCauley, Drath, Palus, O'Conner, and Baker (2006), the current research operationalized Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm, and McKee (2014) identified content areas for leader development (the dimensions of intrapersonal and interpersonal development) into an applicable model that can be utilized to guide leader development in organizations. A mixed-method approach was utilized to determine validity of the proposed model by conducting a single data collection from two groups (identified as subject matter experts and practitioners). The first group involved a qualitative process by interviewing five subject matter experts. The second data group consisted of 57 practitioners from industry and academia who participated via a quantitative survey. Findings indicate support of the suggested model and the emergence of the evolved leadership capital development model

Henson, Joshua D.

  • An Examination of the Role of Spirituality in the Development of the Moral Component of Authentic Leadership through a Sociorhetorical Analysis of Paul's Letter to Titus

    Joshua D. Henson


    This study examined the role of spirituality in the moral development component of authentic leadership in comparison to leadership principles found in the Epistle to Titus. The study of moral development was drawn from the literature on authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and preexisting frameworks of moral agency, self-concept, and the stages of moral development. The exegetical process followed the methodology of sociorhetorical analysis and was interpreted for the moral, ethical, and leadership principles found in the pericope. The study yielded five themes of leadership from which 10 principles of leadership were discovered as found in Paul's letter to Titus. It was found that the principles in Titus generally support the literature on the moral development component of authentic leadership theory. In the case when there were differences, it was found that principles of Titus expand and elevate the standards found in the literature. The study concluded that there is an intimate relationship between sacred and secular contexts such that the moral and ethical standards of the Christian community engage the moral standards of a given social and cultural context and reconfigures them in light of the gospel of Jesus Christ. The 10 core values of ethical behavior discovered in Titus were compared to the constructs of authentic leadership theory, spiritual leadership theory, and the core values of spirituality, and they were found to transcend each construct. The study created a framework for the future study of the core values of morality and ethics in multiple constructs: biblical, secular, and sacred.

Kalaluhi, Stephen L.

  • On Developing a Deeper Understanding of Authentic Leadership: Interpreting Matthew 3:11-5:48—Using Intertexture Analysis and Social and Cultural Texture Analysis

    Stephen L. Kalaluhi


    This inductive, qualitative research study explore the construct of authentic leadership within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated within the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope. Using the Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 pericope as a foundation for authentic leadership, this study seeks to answer the following research question: How does the pericope within the Christian sacred text that describes Jesus' baptism, temptations, subsequent start of ministry, and initial teachings as found in Matthew 3:11 – 5:48 contribute to our current understanding of how organizational outcomes are affected by leader morality when applied from within the intrapersonal, interpersonal, developmental, and pragmatic perspectives of authentic leadership? This research followed the exegetical foundation as described by Robbins (1996a, 1996b), and focused primarily on the frameworks associated with intertexture analysis and social and cultural texture analysis. Nine themes emerged from the data, suggesting the authenticity of Jesus was further enhanced through the intrapersonal perspective, the interpersonal perspective, the developmental perspective, and the pragmatic perspective. Specifically, the nine themes identified the following aspects of authentic leadership: (a) use of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (b) recitation of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (c) reconfiguration of traditions, regulations, and pre-existing laws, (d) use of reference, allusion, and echo to build authenticity as a leader, (e) use of social knowledge and its use in establishing authenticity, (f) use of reformist discourse to emphasize different authentic leadership approaches, (g) the concept of ascribed honor and its importance to authentic leaders, (h) the concept of challenge-response and its use in authentic leadership, and (i) the concept of purity and its role in authentic leadership. A discussion about the research findings and their implications to the contemporary organizational leadership context is included. This research also addresses the limitations of this study, as well as provides guidelines pertaining to possible future research related to the topic of authentic leadership studied from within a Christian worldview.

Lamb, William

  • Service Learning Experiences and University Students' Motivation to Lead

    William Lamb


    In an effort to improve service-learning (SL) experiences among students at university campuses, it is valuable for educational leaders to measure the impact that these experiences may have on students. In addition, a responsibility of universities is to prepare students for leadership beyond the collegiate experiences. This study expanded previous research by identifying the relationship of SL experiences with student motivation to lead (MTL). In addition, this study also examined social justice attitudes, problem-solving skills, and perceived leadership skills as possible mediators in the relationship between SL and student MTL. Although there is adequate literature on the three dimensions of motivation to lead (affective-identity, social-normative, and noncalculative), there seemed to be a gap in the investigation of the relationship of student's SL experiences and MTL. Therefore, this research study utilized a quantitative approach for gathering and analyzing empirical data which revealed outcomes that will be beneficial to expanding the research on SL and MTL. The sample of students, ranging from freshman to seniors at a faith-based institution in the United States participating in this study totaled 407. Control variables included general self-efficacy, gender, race, and previous leadership experience. Two questions guided this study: Does the extent of a student's SL program experience have a positive multivariate relationship with a student's MTL? Do student problem-solving skills, beliefs in social justice, and leadership role experiences mediate the relationship between a student's SL program experiences and student MTL? The results of this research revealed that (a) SL does have a direct relationship with student's affective-identity MTL, (b) perceived leadership skills fully mediate the relationship between SL and affective-identity MTL, (c) SL is not a predictor of social-normative motivation to lead, (d) neither problem-solving skills nor social justice attitudes mediate the relationship between SL and AIMTL.

Miller, Sharmane C.

  • Individual Readiness for Change: The Impact of Organizational Learning Culture and SDL's Learning Motivation

    Sharmane C. Miller


    This cross-sectional study quantitatively investigated the impact of organizational learning culture (OLC) on individual cognitive readiness (COGRE) and emotional readiness (EMRE) for organizational change. Additionally, the moderating influences of the self-directed learning construct of employees' learning motivation on the relationships between the single dimension of creating continuous learning opportunities (a dimension of OLC) and COGRE and EMRE for organizational change were examined. Using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ; Watkins & Marsick, 1993), the Readiness Scale of the Organizational Change Questionnaire-Climate of Change, Processes, and Readiness Scale (OCQ-C, P, R; Bouchenooghe, Devos, & Van den Broeck, 2009), the learning motivation scale of the Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI; Cheng, Kuo, Lin, & Lee-Hsieh, 2010) and a demographic questionnaire, perceptual data were obtained from a sample (N = 130) of public, primary school teachers who were embarking on a major organizational change initiative in The Bahamas. Using multiple hierarchical regressions, the findings indicated first that there were statistically significant relationships between EMRE for change and the seven dimensions of OLC. Second, age influenced the relationship between individuals' perception of their OLC and their EMRE for change. Third, the study found no statistically significant relationships between level of education and EMRE or COGRE for change. Finally, this study found no moderating effects and inferred no causal relationships because of low R2 values. Understanding the influence of the variables of OLC and learning motivation on individual readiness for organizational change provides valuable insight about how organization leaders can adequately prepare for and execute successful change.

Monahan, Kelly D.

  • Personal Responsibility in the Financial Services Industry: The Cognitive Antecedents and Behavioral Consequences of an Employee's Sense of Responsibility in Organizations

    Kelly D. Monahan


    The purpose of this research was to define and examine the cognitive antecedents and behavioral consequences of personal responsibility within the workplace. A quantitative research design was conducted on a sample of 200 full-time employees working at The Hartford. Confirmatory structural equation modeling confirmed the a priori model, a full mediation model, as the best fit to represent the relationships found within the personal responsibility model. Self-concept beliefs, as manifested by locus of control and self-efficacy, were strong predictors of one's ascription of responsibility back to the self. Contextual job beliefs, however, were not found to predict personal responsibility and were rather an indirect influence based on the covariant relationship with self-concept beliefs. As predicted, attitudes towards personal responsibility were a strong predictor of whether one intended to engage in helpful behaviors. Therefore, helpful behavioral intentions were found as a direct consequence of personal responsibility. This study provides an extensive model that evaluates the motivational cognitions and intentions of personal responsibility within the workplace based on the theory of reasoned action framework. The findings call into question the job characteristics model as the most appropriate measure of personal responsibility, which states personal responsibility as a byproduct of autonomy. Rather, personal responsibility may be defined as a cognitive process and individual tendency to attribute the consequences of one's action back to the self. Perhaps rather than focusing on the amount of autonomy one has within the workplace, research should focus on explaining why some employees have a higher sense of personal responsibility and test the stability of that trait. The call for future research invites greater attention and dialogue to the self-cognitions that drive one to ascribe responsibility back to the self.

Reitz, Scott

  • Understanding Team Effectiveness in Culturally Intelligent Intercultural Teams

    Scott Reitz


    Globalization has stimulated unprecedented global migration, creating and demanding cultural diversity in organizations and in their teams. Organizations today are increasingly diverse, and intercultural teams are no longer multinational concepts alone. Within national borders, populations are increasingly diverse, and organizational teams reflect this diversity. Regardless of how small cultural differences appear, they have the potential to create significant differences in how teams communicate, perform, and make decisions. Livermore (2009) argued that no two team members respond to the same cultural value in the same way. The current study expands the understanding of how culturally intelligent intercultural teams view effectiveness by identifying key themes drawn from episodic interviews with team members. The more significant emergent themes is the firmly held belief that effective intercultural teams require trust, shared values, service to others, and a respect for team and team members.

Sandifer, Davina

  • Self Efficacy in the Leadership of Jesus' Disciples: An Inner Texture Socio-Rhetorical Analysis of the Gospel According to John

    Davina Sandifer


    Leadership development is a well-known component of successful organizations. As such, leadership development programs are a viable solution for equipping employees with desired skills and characteristics. This study assessed self-efficacy as a generalizable methodology for creating effective leadership development programs. The premise was based on the validity, reliability, predictability, and generalizability of self-efficacy theory and measurement instruments. Through inner texture sociorhetorical analysis of self-efficacy in the leadership development of Jesus' disciples, sources of efficacy and corresponding learning activities were identified. The following components of self-efficacy in the disciples' leadership development process were found: the use of a prevalent source of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the utilization of multiple sources of efficacy to cultivate belief in specific thematic content, the use of a prevalent learning activity for specific thematic content, the use of a variety of learning activities to cultivate efficacy as it relates to each category of thematic content, an organized progression of the content, and learning activities facilitated by an authoritative figure. These components were adapted into the self-efficacy leadership development model, a methodology for creating leadership development programs that utilizes sources of efficacy in determining what learning content and learning activities will be most effective in accomplishing leadership development goals.

Stum, Jake

  • Twelve Steps Toward Leader Humility: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of Benedict of Nursia's Chapter on Humility

    Jake Stum


    This inductive, qualitative research study explored the construct of leader humility within the context of organizational leadership as demonstrated in the writings of Benedict of Nursia, specifically Chapter 7 of Rule of Saint Benedict. This study further sought to understand factors of humility and answer the following three research questions: What is the process of humility development as described in Chapter 7 of the Rule of Saint Benedict? Do the descriptions of organizational humility provided by Galbraith and Galbraith (2004) effectively define the construct of organizational humility promoted by the Rule of Saint Benedict? How does the organizational humility proposed by Benedict reflect or challenge current models of humility in organizational research? The research method employed in this study emerged from the theoretical approach of hermeneutics as described by Gadamer (2004) and Patton (2002), using sociorhetorical critical analysis (Robbins, 1996a) as the interpretative method with a focus on both the inner textuality and the intertextuality of Chapter 7 of the Rule. Following Robbins' (1996b) recommended framework, the applied analyses included separate study of inner texts and intertexts. Inner texture analysis included (a) repetitive, (b) progressive, (c) narrational, (d) open-middle-closing, and (e) argumentative textures and patterns. Intertexture exploration included (a) oral-scribal, (b) cultural, (c) social, and (d) historical analysis. A progressive, descriptive model of leader humility emerged to indicate a process of development including the following steps: (a) revelation, (b) commitment, (c) abnegation, (d) submission, (e) patience, (f) honesty, (g) contentment, (h) dependency, (i) measured speech, and (g) saturation. A discussion of the research findings and implications for contemporary organizational leadership is included in addition to potential study limitations and possible future research related to this topic.

Watson, Teresa

  • A Situational Examination of Motivation to Lead: Gendered Implications in Leader Development

    Teresa Watson


    Previous research studies have indicated that there are fewer women than men in leadership positions. The causes for this are less understood. This study adopted a different approach to reviewing the situation by focusing on the leader development aspect of motivation to lead (MTL) and whether or not it is impacted by environmental aspects of the organization in the forms of political perceptions, relationships with a current leader, and work-family conflicts. Each of these factors has been shown to have a relationship with gender. This research investigated whether or not gender affects their relationship with a composite form of MTL by examining gender as a moderator variable. Data from a sample of employed individuals in different industries, including government, partially support some hypothesized relationships between MTL, leader-member exchange, and political perceptions. Gender implications are discussed. Limitations and future research for MTL and leader development are addressed.

West, William D.

  • An Examination of Leadership Charisma From the Perspective of the Apostle Paul and Max Weber With a View Toward an Ecclesial Charismatic Leadership Theory: A Sociorhetorical Interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12

    William D. West


    This qualitative study examines the concept of charisma found in 1 Corinthians 12 with a view toward exploring an ecclesial charismatic leadership theory. The sociorhetorical method of interpretation is the primary exegetical method used to explore 1 Corinthians 12. The specific concepts of spiritual gifts presented in 1 Corinthians 12 have long been examined by theologians throughout the history of the church. However, very few articles or books have considered the Pauline concept of charisma as the power and authority the Holy Spirit provides to each individual within the ecclesia. It is the charisma that not only brings the spiritual gift but also provides the power and authority for the individual to provide leadership within the ecclesia through the use of his or her particular spiritual gift for the common good. Paul is credited with coining the term charisma which is grossly misappropriated by Weber (1903/1978). Paul considered power and authority within charisma to be from God and immutable, while Weber described power and authority as being held by the followers who retain the potential for withdrawal by the followers. The sociorhetorical interpretation of 1 Corinthians 12 reveals a model for ecclesial charismatic leadership that begins with God who provides the charisma to each individual of the ecclesia through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit provides each individual with a particular spiritual gift. Once the individual understands his or her particular spiritual gift and expresses the gift, two things happen. First, the individual fulfills the individual goal for which his or her spiritual gift is given. Second, as each individual expresses his or her spiritual gift, the organizational goal of the common good of the ecclesia is achieved. Therefore, the expression of each individual's spiritual gift results in greater organizational commitment for the individual and greater overall organizational effectiveness of the ecclesia.


Ahlijah, Godwin K. D.

  • Exploring the Effectiveness of Spiritual Leadership in Entrepreneurial Firms in Ghana

    Godwin K. D. Ahlijah


    Spiritual leadership involves the application of spiritual values and principles to the workplace. Incorporating spirituality in leadership may lead to greater perception of trust, organizational support, commitment, and productivity. This paper presents a phenomenological qualitative research design that explored the effectiveness of spiritual leadership in entrepreneurial organizations in Ghana, underscoring its uniqueness in promoting spiritual survival for both the leader and follower. The literature review thoroughly explained the concept of spiritual leadership. Intangible concepts, such as spirit, spirituality, and religion, as they relate to the spiritual leadership construct were explained and the uniqueness of spiritual leadership in entrepreneurial organizations were examined. Following the research questions, the paper posited a methodology and procedure for analyzing the qualitative data that were collected from entrepreneurial organizations belonging to Christian, Muslim, animist, and nonspiritual leaders. Ten themes emerged from the analysis that describes the effectiveness of spiritual leadership on entrepreneurial firms. Results indicated that spiritual leadership in the Christian and Muslim categories is more effective than the animist and nonspiritual categories. However, the nonspiritual classification demonstrated an effectiveness that is above the animist group, giving an indication of a possible negative spiritual leadership phenomenon.

Baldomir, Joel

  • The Organization's Role in Leadership Identity Development: A Phenomenological Study of Organizational Leaders

    Joel Baldomir


    This phenomenological study examined the leadership identity development of a sample of organizational leaders in order to better understand leaders' perceptions about what contributed to the development of their leadership identities. Using in- depth interview questions, the lived experiences of organizational leaders were explored so as to build on the limited existing research on leadership identity and offer further insight into the phenomenon of leadership identity formation. The results of this study revealed that the study participants had each experienced leadership within multiple social and organizational contexts. Based on the responses of study participants, the acceptance of their leadership identities was influenced, in part, by the leaders to whom they had been exposed and by the social contexts in which their leadership experiences took place. The participants in this study began to identify themselves as leaders while working within the context of organizations that provided opportunities for leadership, collaboration, and mentorship from experienced leaders.

Banks, Tonya M.

  • The Effects of Leader Speech and Leader Motivating Language on Employee Self-Esteem

    Tonya M. Banks


    In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Gen 1:1). Creation happened by His spoken Word. God used words to bring life into existence, which was good. Through His word, death occurred also. God the Son (Jesus Christ) commanded an unfruitful fig tree to die (Matt 21:18 -22; Mrk 11:12-14, 20-25). Spoken words can manifest life or death, good or bad, positive or negative outcomes. "Death and life are in the power of the tongue: and they that love it shall eat the fruit thereof" (Prov 18:21). Humans were created in the image of God Himself (Gen 1:26, 27) and have the ability to speak life or death through the use of language or spoken words. Banks (2012) presupposed that managers, supervisors, or leaders have the ability to impart into their employees good or bad by what is said from their mouth, which can result in positive or negative outcomes. Sullivan (1988) presupposed "what a manager says to an employee affects employee motivation" (p. 104). Language has been identified as a communication variable that can be studied to understand the culture of an organization. Language and speech are forms of communication that humans use to interact with others and are part of one's everyday life and society. Specifically, leader language and speech are important for employees or subordinates in the organization. The words or what the leader says to the employee can reap good or bad outcomes, positive or negative outcomes. In this study, language and speech affected the trait of follower self-esteem of employee either negatively or positively. The researcher examined the impact of leader language on employee self-esteem. Two language models were examined and tested. Sullivan (1988) developed the first model; Banks (2012) proposed the second model. Structural equation modeling, which seeks to explain the relationships among multiple variables, was the analytical method chosen for testing each hypothesis on three samples (N = 42, N = 97, N = 139). The hypotheses tested were leader-motivating language positively increases employee self-esteem, leader control of speech positively increases employee self-esteem, and leader noncontrol of speech decreases employee self-esteem. Each hypothesis was supported for all three samples.

Bayes, Jimmy D.

  • Toward a Model of Divine Empowerment: A Sociorhetorical Analysis of the Relationship Between the Ascension of Christ and Leadership Empowerment in Ephesians 4:1-16

    Jimmy D. Bayes


    This study found that leaders are divinely empowered and authorized to participate with God mediating the relationships between God and man and among men. This study addresses the divine aspect of leadership by examining the relationship between God and leadership roles in the first-century church. Ephesians 4:1-16 was analyzed to discover the relationship between the ascension of Christ and leadership empowerment. Ephesians 4:1-16 was chosen to be examined because of the importance of Paul's epistles to the development of the church and because it specifically associates deity—the ascended Christ—with leadership functions. Addressing the research question—What is the empowering relationship between the ascended Christ and the leadership ministries in Ephesians 4:1-16?—this research found that Christ represented the Trinity in exalted form, giving gifts and authority to the church for the purpose of building maturity and unity. Sociorhetorical analysis of the text found five components that comprise divine empowerment: calling, participation, membership, authority, and mediating roles. A model of divine empowerment was suggested and then integrated into a model of empowerment that incorporates social, structural, psychological, and divine aspects. This model was considered in light of modern leadership theories.

Bennett, John J.

  • Person-Entrepreneurial Leadership Fitness Instrument (PELFI): Development and Validation of a Theoretical Process-Based Measure

    John J. Bennett


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop and validate the Person-Entrepreneurial Leadership Fitness Instrument (PELFI). This study took an important step toward the measurement, refinement, and standardization of entrepreneurial leadership theory utilizing a cross-culturally validated construct of entrepreneurial leadership (Gupta, MacMillan, & Surie, 2004) derived from the Global Leadership Organizational Behavior Effectiveness research program (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, & Gupta, 2004) and the entrepreneurial new venture process (Mueller & Goic, 2003). Well-established scientific scale development approaches based on the doctrine of DeVellis (2012) have used methods comprised of two stages: item development and scale identification and validation. A Delphi method study utilized a panel of 46 subject matter experts to evaluate the item pool that provided mixed-method feedback. A sample of 273 business owners and entrepreneurs participated in this study. Factor extraction by way of principle component analysis using oblique rotation through direct oblimin was conducted to explore the underlying structure for sources of variability with the first analysis resulting in the extraction of four components with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 explaining 61.29% of the variance—the first accounted for 44.80% of the variance, the second accounted for 7.45% of the variance, the third accounted for 4.61% of the variance, and the fourth accounted for 4.43% of the variance. Reliability analysis resulted in a 21-item, three-factor solution comprised of leader-follower orientation (α = .928), performance orientation (α = .839), and entrepreneurial savvy (α = .827). The third factor of venture scope (α = .727) contained two items for this scale, thus making it unusable. Convergent validity was determined through comparison to the Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation (Bolton & Lane, 2012) and Satisfaction with Business (Powell & Eddleston, 2008) measures. Entrepreneurial leaders are placed in an environmental situation where certain personal individual difference factors are instrumental to the entrepreneurial leadership state of mind in which the greater the person's fitness for entrepreneurial leadership, the higher the likelihood of entrepreneurial leadership success.

Boyd, Christopher L.

  • The Effect of Leader Eudaimonic Well-Being and Impact of Life Experiences on Authentic Leadership

    Christopher L. Boyd


    This quantitative study advances authentic leadership research and explores the interactions between leader eudaimonic well-being, the impact of life experiences, and authentic leadership. Using a sample of 900 international leaders from 108 nations, the results support a statistically significant relationship between eudaimonic well-being, life experience impact/response, and authentic leadership. The research further posits that individuals high in authentic leadership are generally high in eudaimonic well-being and report being positively impacted by the perceivably positive and negative events of life. Further research is needed to explore other variables that contribute to the relationships between authentic leadership, eudaimonic well-being, and the impact of a leader's life experiences.

Burchard, MaryJo A.

  • Aesthetically Whole: Inner Cohesion of the Ecclesial Leader as Person as Observed in Aesthetic Action: A Companion Study of St. Francis of Assisi and Aimee Semple McPherson

    MaryJo A. Burchard


    This study examined how aesthetic leadership behaviors relate to or express leaders' personal cohesion of inner self. The hypothesis asserted that (a) leaders who were exposed to prolonged/profound trauma and did not work through this trauma may retreat their identity into their leadership role, attempting to epitomize the ideals of their movement to escape from the pain; (b) once their identity is confined to the pursuit of embodying their movement's values, these leaders may feel compelled to sacrifice everything including intimacy, rest, and health, for the prototypical ideals, and live in a constant state of hyper-arousal (fight or flight) and social constriction (Schick, 2011); (c) in this state, leaders may be capable of abnormally high performance outputs with expansive, lasting impact—but this performance may be indicative of brokenness and disintegration from oneself; and (d) leaders' personal coherence will be observable in their aesthetic actions. For disintegrated traumatized leaders, the fracture was hypothesized to be aesthetically expressed in hyper-prototypicality as a leader, with simultaneously observable difficulty in maintaining healthy self. In a companion study, a hybrid hermeneutical personal narrative approach was utilized to analyze the parallel texts of Testament (Francis, 1226) and the Life of St. Francis (Thomas of Celano, 1246) to examine the inner cohesion of Saint Francis of Assisi, as well as the parallel texts of This is That (Semple McPherson, 1923) and Aimee Semple McPherson and the Resurrection of Christian America (Sutton, 2007) in the examination of Sister Aimee Semple McPherson's cohesion of self. The study demonstrated that research of a leader's inner person requires study of multidimensional aesthetic exchanges rather than aesthetic action alone. Role development in the family also shaped leaders' understanding of calling and expectations. Additionally, aesthetically expressed disintegration of core identity appears to have triggered the embrace of ministry lifestyles that sustained hyper-arousal. Finally, four variables emerged as the primary causal factors in the disintegration of both leaders' personhood: (a) intense/overbearing parental influence, (b) overwhelming desire to have widespread impact, (c) skewed understanding of God or personal application of the gospel, and (d) lack of capacity to process trauma—variables that leaders in numerous contexts may experience.

Daniels, Trina L.

  • The Role of Theological Reflection in the Embodiment of Shared Leadership Among Clergy Couples in Ecclesial Contexts

    Trina L. Daniels


    As biblical models, Pricilla and Aquila set forth an underexplored paradigm of ecclesial leadership among married clergy couples. Using Pricilla and Aquila as a pivotal axis, this study nests within the realm of acceptable biblical practices. In light of sparse detail about their marriage and ministry, this dissertation employed a phenomenological research methodology to investigate the lived experience of shared leadership among two audiences—married clergy couples and their organizational leaders. The researcher interviewed five comparably ordained married clergy couples to enhance the theory of shared leadership. Shared leadership theory provides a template from which to examine nuances about the nature of their leadership in private and public. Insight about their marriage and leadership in the church proved beneficial toward theory building of shared leadership for other clergy couples. Literature has suggested shared leadership may introduce added conflict and complexity as leaders sort out their interpersonal dynamics and learn to orchestrate organizational functions in tandem (Brumbaugh, 1986; Jaffe, 1991; Nelton, 1986; Pandey, 2003; Rallings & Pratto, 1986; Walrond-Skinner, 1998). Clergy couples additionally experienced problems when they engaged in change initiatives and as an element of sharing a marriage and leadership relationship. With this in mind, this research investigated the role theological reflection plays in helping clergy couples navigate shared leadership challenges. Theological reflection enables its practitioners to contemplate meaning about their faith and actions and sort out complexities (Stone & Duke, 2006). Findings evidenced clergy couples routinely engage in theological reflection and more so when working through problems. They articulated that theological reflection moderated their internal feelings about problems and also had the power to change external circumstances. Interviewing their organizational leaders provided a comprehensive perspective of how clergy couples enacted shared leadership and how other leaders embodied it. Overall, organizational leaders positively regarded the shared leadership modeled by their clergy couples and they expressed success when trying to integrate it into leadership of their lives and church.

Davis, H. Allen, Jr.

  • Theology or Culture? A Closer Look at the Issues Driving the Current Debate Over Ordination Without Regard to Gender in the Seventh-day Adventist Church

    H. Allen Davis, Jr.


    Yukl (2013) contended that, over time, organizations experience significant challenges that threaten to fracture and even divide them completely. Of the 13 divisions within the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, three have unions and conferences that have acted counter to the 1990 policy, which stated only men are to receive the appointment of ordained pastoral leadership within the various conferences, unions, and divisions (Advindicate, 2012). This friction point has sparked disunity within the movement, which has the potential of splitting the church depending upon the recommendation of the Theology of Ordination Study Committee formed in 2012. Many scholars have looked to the sacred texts for an answer to this age-old question, yet interpretations appear to vary from theologian to theologian. Because the divergent divisions are of the Anglo-Germanic cluster of national cultures, this study proposed to examine the influence of culture and theology and to resolve the questions: Have cultural norms influenced the Anglo-Germanic clusters' departure from General Conference policy which stated, "we do not approve ordination of women to the gospel ministry"? What are the reasons why 10 of the church's divisions have adhered to General Conference policy, whereas three have not—are they cultural or theological? To address these inquiries, this study provided a concise literature review of Hofstede's (1983) cultural dimensions, Seventh-day Adventism's historic viewpoint on ordination, and the theological underpinnings of ordination. From this deliberation, nine open-ended questions were extracted from the literature to conduct a phenomenological study upon a targeted sampling of 11 church leaders and lay leaders within eight of the world church's 13 divisions. This study used HyperRESEARCH to analyze the data and to understand themes. The results showed that culture was the driving factor as to why the Anglo-Germanic divisions have acted contrary to world church policy as well as why the compliant divisions have toed the line. Finally, the study offered distinct reasons for the importance of this research and recommendations for future investigation.

Dockett, Alvin W.

  • Towards an Understanding of Divine Guidance Among Christian Leaders

    Alvin W. Dockett


    The purpose of this research study was to explore the effects of divine guidance on leadership behaviors and outcomes among Christian leaders. In particular, the research study intended to explore the effects of divine guidance on the decision making and leadership outcomes of Christian leaders. The study utilized a qualitative research methodology. Three primary sources of qualitative inquiry were used and blended together within the research study: (a) heuristic inquiry, (b) phenomenology, and (c) grounded theory. A seven-step qualitative data analysis process was also used, including (a) collecting raw data, (b) organizing and preparing data for analysis, (c) reviewing the data, (d) coding the data, (e) identifying themes/patterns, (g) interrelating themes/patterns, and (h) interpreting the data. Ten semistructured interviews were conducted wherein participants shared their personal experiences and thoughts regarding divine guidance. Participants in the study included ecclesial leaders (7/10), leaders in federal government agencies (2/10), and educational leaders (1/10). Interviews were conducted at business offices (6/10), personal homes (2/10), and via telephone (2/10). Participants included six men and four women. Interviews were recorded and audio files transcribed into text files and imported into the ATLAS.ti 7 qualitative analysis software. The text files were then coded and analyzed for emerging themes and patterns. Five primary themes emerged from the findings: (a) religious experience, (b) authentication of divine guidance, (c) impediments to divine guidance, and (e) leadership outcomes. Emerging from the findings was a Christian leader's model of decision making. The findings of the research were partially generalized to the population of Christian leaders.

    Keywords: divine guidance, leadership, Christian leadership, decision making, qualitative research, ecclesial leadership

Dronnen-Schmidt, Merethe

  • The Relationship Between Character Strengths, Virtues, Self-Efficacy, and Transformational Leadership

    Merethe Dronnen-Schmidt


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between character strengths, virtues, self-efficacy, and transformational leadership. The focus was to connect the possible precursors of character strengths and virtues to transformational leadership, something which has not been researched before. Most of the existing research about transformational leadership has focused on studying the effects of, and not possible precursors to, transformational leadership. Based on connections found between self-efficacy and transformational leadership, as well as individual strengths of character and self-efficacy in previous research, it was also expected that self-efficacy would have a moderating effect between the independent and dependent variables in this research (Fitzgerald & Schutte, 2009; J. Liu, Siu, & Shi, 2010; Martinez, Salanova, Lorente, & Jose, 2011). The participants in the study were 173 Norwegian leaders from various industries. Of these, 71.7% were males between 18-67 years. The research used a quantitative, nonexperimental and cross-sectional research design. Ten multiple regression analyses were computed on the data material. The two virtues of courage and wisdom and knowledge were found to be predictors of transformational leadership style in these Norwegian leaders. Self-efficacy was also found to moderate the relationship between the virtues of courage, humanity, temperance, and transformational leadership. The fact that both transformational leadership and character strengths can be developed opens new content in leadership development programs. As many of the character strengths are universally seen as appreciated values in both world religions and among everyday people, they can be seen as universally and religiously applicable across many of the world's countries (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2004; Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005), which again can heighten the character strengths' value and importance for universally accepted leadership and also contribute to an international conceptualization of global leadership theory.

Early, James P.

  • Leadership Style, Virtuality, and Self-Leadership on Individual Sales Performance

    James P. Early


    This research sought to explore the relationship between self-leadership, transformational leadership style, transactional leadership style, and degree of virtuality and their impact on sales professional in-role sales performance. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between leadership style (transformational and transactional) and sales professional in-role sales performance. It was also hypothesized that self-leadership would be significantly related to sales professional in-role sales performance. Virtuality was hypothesized to moderate the relationship between leadership style and performance as well as self-leadership and performance. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X short (Bass & Avolio, 2004) was utlized to measure perceptions of leadership style. The Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire (Houghton & Neck, 2002) was utilized to measure self-leadersip. Andressen, Konradt, and Neck's (2012) measure for degree of virtuality was utilized to measure virtuality of the sales professional. Regression analysis of the 202 respondents indicated the transformational and transactional leadership styles failed to predict sales professional in-role sales performance. However, contingent reward and idealized influence independently predicted sales performance. Self-leadership was found to predict sales performance. Suggestions to explain the found relationships and calls for future research are provided

Emory, Laurel B.

  • The Influence of Human Agency on the Professional Path of Women in Executive Leadership Positions

    Laurel B. Emory


    This study covers new ground in the discipline of leadership by exploring the phenomenon of leadership as demonstrated through the cultivation and actualization of human agency in the professional path of women in executive leadership positions. The baseline rationale of this study is that expanding the awareness and understanding of human agency and highly agentic characteristics of women in executive leadership is essential in addressing the need for increasing the number of women in executive leadership positions. Based on (a) the theoretical findings for the discipline of leadership and its associated theories including women in leadership and (b) the discipline of psychology and its corresponding social cognitive theory with a focus on human agency, this study presents a conceptual framework for the study of human agency, specifically for the purpose of answering the research question: In the life stories of women, how was human agency cultivated and then actualized in their path to executive leadership? A model of agentic leadership in women is presented that is useful for subsequent research, theory construction, and design and application of human agency in the discipline of leadership. A qualitative, narrative research methodology was employed to interview five women serving in executive leadership positions in order to gather data about and learn from their experiences. The findings of this study indicate that the participants demonstrated highly agentic and self-efficacious characteristics, as the participants frequently articulated their beliefs in their personal capabilities concerning each of the four core features of human agency (intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness), demonstrating how they were cultivated and then actualized in their lives. These overall findings contribute to the study of women in leadership because understanding the importance of cultivating and actualizing agency in one's life can help other women prepare for a professional path leading to executive leadership.

Freeman, Glenn Thomas

  • An Empirical Examination of the Relationships Among Transformational Leadership Behaviors of School Principals, Organizational Context, and Teacher Commitment to Students

    Glenn Thomas Freeman


    In an effort to improve student learning and outcomes in the United States, education policy makers have focused on developing effective forms of school leadership. Transformational leadership has been widely studied in school contexts and is a popular image of ideal leadership practice in primary and secondary schools. Although there is adequate research in the literature on the relationships between transformational leadership behaviors of school principals and school-level variables, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and teacher-level variables, such as teacher commitment to students. Moreover, researchers have called for giving more attention to organizational context as a factor that affects the relationships between leadership behaviors and outcomes. To address these gaps in the literature, the current study examined the empirical relationships among transformational leadership behaviors of school principals and teacher commitment to students, as well as the effects of organizational leadership context on the relationship between these two variables. With a cross-sectional sample of teachers in a western U.S. school district, the current study revealed that only one dimension of transformational school leadership (i.e., holding high performance expectations) had a significant and positive relationship with teachers' commitment to students' academic achievement and social well-being. Moreover, the study revealed that collective efficacy fully mediated the relationship between these two variables. The study also found that other dimensions of transformational school leadership (i.e., providing vision and inspiration, modeling behavior, fostering commitment to goals, and providing individual support) were not related to teacher commitment to students. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    Keywords: transformational school leadership, organizational trust, collective efficacy, teacher commitment to students

Gillerain, Kelly Tunstall

  • Leader Self-Development: A Study of Community College Students

    Kelly Tunstall Gillerain


    Research advancing the understanding of self-development activities that lead to leadership skills associated with higher education students has been scant. The purpose of the present study was to present research on the motivation, skills, and intellectual stimulation by faculty on the propensity to pursue leader self-development. The second purpose was to examine the role of intellectual stimulation by faculty as both a predictor and a moderator of a student's propensity to pursue leader self-development and a student's self-development activity. A sample of 277 students from a large East Coast community college participated in the survey designed to test a revised model of leader self-development. Results indicated that motivation, skills, and intellectual stimulation by faculty predicted a propensity to pursue leader self-development, as well as leader self-development activity. Propensity to pursue leader self-development was partially mediated when regressed against motivation, skills and intellectual stimulation by faculty. Surprisingly, intellectual stimulation by faculty did not moderate the relationship between a student's propensity to pursue leader self-development and leader self-development activity.
    Keywords: leadership, self-development, leader development, motivation, self-directed learning, intellectual stimulation

Gilligan, Carrie

  • Follower Ethical Mindset and Follower Resistance Within Situational Contexts

    Carrie Gilligan


    This survey research examined follower perceptions of ethical mindset in terms of idealism and relativism as measured by Forsyth's (1980) Ethics Position Questionnaire and the dependent variables of constructive and dysfunctional resistance (Tepper, Duffy, & Shaw, 2001). Moderated multiple regression procedures were followed in order to determine whether two situational moderators influenced the relationship between follower ethical mindset and follower resistance types (Tepper et al., 2001). The moderators included leader-member exchange (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) and two broad-type dimensions of ethical climate including principled and benevolent (Victor & Cullen, 1988). Six control variables were utilized. Responses of a sample of 260 U.S. followers (N = 260) were analyzed. Analysis included utilizing moderated multiple regression which revealed a moderator of Victor and Cullen's (1988) principled-independence ethical climate between follower idealism (Forsyth, 1980) and constructive resistance (Tepper et al., 2001). This moderated relationship indicated that as follower idealism increases, follower constructive resistance decreases in such climates with no main effects.
    Keywords: ethics, resistance, mindset, follower, moderated, climate

Grundhoefer, Raymond W.

  • An Efficacious Measurement of Learning Initiatives: E-Learning Systems, Learning-Organization Culture, Knowledge Creation, and Innovativeness

    Raymond W. Grundhoefer
    May 2013


    The purpose of this research is twofold: (a) develop a validated measure for learning initiatives based on knowledge-creation theory and (b) conduct a quantitative study to investigate the relationships between electronic learning systems, learning-organization culture, efficacious knowledge creation (EKC), and innovativeness. Although Cheng-Chang Sivo, Gunter, and Cornell (2005) and Y.-S. Wang, Wang, and Shee (2007) made initial attempts to valuate e-learning systems success, they failed to take into account performance-based measures, the cultural construct, and other related determinants. Based on Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) knowledge-creation phases and Oh's (2001) and Song's (2008) actionable knowledge-creation research, this study tests EKC processes and, ultimately, innovativeness as the principal performance-based outcomes of e-learning systems. Using the knowledge-creation phases proposed by Nonaka and Takeuchi as a guide, the five dimensions of the EKC instrument are actionable learning, autonomous participation, collaborative participation, engagement, and equivalency.

Holman, B.J.

  • Healthcare Information System Self-Efficacy Perception (HISSEP) Questionnaire: An Instrument Development and Validation

    B.J. Holman


    Nurses serve as an integral part of interdisciplinary leadership teams within healthcare organizations. Due to changing workforce dynamics, many nurse leaders are remaining in the workforce past the traditional retirement age. Workforce shortages of qualified nurses with technology skills in healthcare are necessary to maintain a high level of patient care and healthcare operations. One of the main challenges faced by healthcare organizations is providing healthcare information system training conducive to all employees regardless of age while considering gerontology issues for older workers. The purpose of the study was to validate the Healthcare Information System Self-Efficacy Perception (HISSEP) questionnaire, a self-assessment tool for measuring an older working nurse's perception of self-efficacy of healthcare information system training within a healthcare environment. The self-efficacy framework provides a theoretical perspective on individual perception of internal belief of capability attributes necessary to succeed in tasks pursued. This study is the first of its kind to recognize the salient training differences that exist for older workers in a healthcare setting. The instrument was developed using a focus group and pilot study and validated with registered nurses in a single-site healthcare organization located in the northeastern region of the United States. The sample (N = 162) was assessed via email using an online survey tool. After face validity was established for HISSEP, a principal component factor analysis was conducted to determine content validity. Internal consistency reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The principal component factor analysis revealed HISSEP had two unique factor patterns with high factor loadings creating simple structure. Factor 1 interpretation suggested a scale that measures perception of organizational training supports. The factor loadings for Factor 2 reflected variables that measure perception of healthcare information system training. The findings reported HISSEP had good internal consistency reliability for the entire scale (α = .90) and strong internal consistency reliability for Scale 1 (α = .94) and Scale 2 (α = .87). The manuscript provides methods of scale development followed by recommendations regarding use of HISSEP as a tool for healthcare information system training curriculum development and facilitation for healthcare workers, specifically older working nurses.
    Keywords: healthcare information system, human resource development, industrial gerontology, leadership, older worker, nursing, perceived organizational support, self-efficacy, training

Jolibois, Jude

  • A Self-Concept-Based Approach to Motivation to Lead

    Jude Jolibois


    Chan and Drasgow (2001) developed and measured a multidimensional construct known as motivation to lead (MTL) with three underlying factors: affective-identity MTL, social-normative MTL, and noncalculative MTL. Originally, Chan and Drasgow's empirical test of MTL theory found that personality dimensions, previous leadership experience, and leadership self-efficacy predicted each type of MTL. Subsequent studies have found that other individual differences such as personal values (Clemmons & Fields, 2011) or communication apprehension (Jones, 2013) may also play a significant role in determining an employee's MTL. This study expanded on the current theoretical framework of MTL by exploring the role of a person's self-concept as measured by core self-evaluations (CSE) and situational variables on a person's MTL. Using a cross-sectional quantitative research design, this study examined the relationship between CSE, perceived autonomy support (PAS), person-organization (PO) fit, and MTL and its three dimensions within a sample of school staff members in the New York public school system (N = 251). The regression analyses indicated a strong positive relationship between CSE and general MTL and affective-identity MTL. As for the situational variables, a weak relationship was found between PAS, PO fit, and MTL. Other than the positive relationship between PO fit and general MTL and noncalculative MTL, no relationship was found between PO fit and the other two dimensions of MTL. On the other hand, PAS was found to have a positive relationship only with social-normative MTL. However, a post hoc analysis indicated that CSE may mediate the effects of PAS and PO fit on MTL.

Kiruhi, Timothy M.

  • Towards Holistic Leadership Development in Africa: Insights from Exemplary Kenyan Public Leaders

    Timothy M. Kiruhi
    January 2013


    Adadevoh (2006) posited that poor leadership underlies Africa's major challenges of underdevelopment (Landell-Mills, 1992), degrading poverty (Adeyemo, 1997), and lack of confidence (Adei, 2004) and is the continent's most pressing need. Cenac (2010) argued that leaders emerge in a context as a result of variables that influence leadership effectiveness and advancement, while Mintzberg (2006) posited that effective leadership development emerges from the context with strong local ownership, relevance, and commitment. However, Avolio (2005) argued that leadership development has not been integrated into a comprehensive model as extant frameworks do not deal with the leader's character and convictions. Like other complex phenomena, once broken into essential parts and the code obtained, leadership development could be effectively executed and efficiently accelerated. Africa's collective context calls for an investigation into the whole leadership process, including not only the leader as with McCuiston's (2007) holistic leader development model but also followers (Mmobuosi, 1991) and dynamic leadership contexts (Ngcobo & Tikly, 2010). The emergence and expression of exemplary leadership practices based on contextually relevant values and practices (Gichuru, 2011), the enhancement of exemplary leadership through sustained leadership development (Gitsham & Downing, 2011), and its lasting effect in the African context (Beugre & Offodile, 2001) are the focus of this research in the East African context where the development of transformational leaders had not been realized (Minja, 2010) and leadership not researched adequately (Kamoche, 2011). The research identified exemplary leaders among Kenyans in top leadership roles in all societal domains. Of 40 identified behaviors, four were the primary influences on 25 exemplary leaders. Through networking, a holistic leadership development framework is advanced as the code to accelerate exemplary leadership and Africa's transformation, benefiting leadership development globally by extending Kouzes and Posner's (1987) and McCuiston's (2007) exemplary leadership models with spirituality and contextual factors as well as Watkins, Lyso, and deMarrais' (2011) and Sessoms' (2004) leadership development studies and complementing Tagoe's (2011) study of critical factors for Africa's transformation—the last human resource development frontier (Kamoche, 2011), an Africa that is endowed with vast human, natural, cultural, and spiritual resources but, paradoxically, is the least developed continent (Adeyemo, 1997).

Kliuchnikov, Artem

  • A Cross-Cultural Study of Effective Leadership Attributes in Ukraine and Russia

    Artem Kliuchnikov


    Russia and Ukraine are two countries that have shared much history together and are sometimes understood as one unified entity. However, these are two different countries with two different cultures, languages, and mentalities. While Russia has been in the focus of leadership research, there are no organizational leadership studies on Ukraine. The purpose of this qualitative inquiry was to explore, describe, and define attributes of an effective leader in Russian and Ukrainian organizations through the lens of Russian and Ukrainian employees and leaders in national organizations and then to compare attributes of an effective leader in Russian and Ukrainian organizations. The research employed phenomenological qualitative inquiry as it focused on the essence of leadership phenomena in Russia and Ukraine and safeguarded against the predetermined understanding of leadership. This research resulted in the development of 10 effective leader attributes that are common both for Russia and Ukraine: (a) authoritarianism, (b) paternalism, (c) professionalism, (d) intellect, (e) laissez faire, (f) charisma, (g) enthusiasm, (h) morality, (i) trust, and (j) freedom—and two attributes particular to Ukraine only: (a) organizational skills and (b) responsibility. However, the main layer of differences was discovered in the categories that comprised the attributes. The study provides insights into different constructs and how they are understood by Russians and Ukrainians in their respective cultures.

Lenz, Kenneth R.

  • Impact of Political Leaders' Policies Upon Entrepreneurial Leaders' Motivation

    Kenneth R. Lenz


    This study explored the impact political leaders' policy decisions have upon entrepreneurial leaders' motivation to start and expand companies. The study utilized Bernstein's (2004) theory of wealth as a framework and involved qualitative interviews among entrepreneurial leaders in three different cultural clusters represented by Ghana, Norway, and the United States. The purpose of this study was to uncover the basis for developing a new global theory of entrepreneurial development that can benefit both entrepreneurial leaders in their start-up and expansion efforts and governmental leaders desiring to foster greater entrepreneurial activity, which has the greatest economic development benefit for society. This phenomenological qualitative study was conducted by a research team with members from each respective nation studied. Results reflect five themes that demotivate entrepreneurs: inhibiting political attitudes, regulatory behavior, competition (either limits to private competition or unfair government-subsidized competition), taxes, and favoritism. Two additional themes (start-up relief and networking) provide suggested positive actions political leaders could take to increase entrepreneurial leaders' willingness for taking additional risks to start and grow companies in ways that benefit the broader economy. One final moderating element, trust and cooperation, might be considered as a variable that significantly affects the efficaciousness of the two suggested solutions themes. To the extent entrepreneurs felt they could trust political leaders and felt that political leaders were willing to cooperate with them, the problems and solutions became possible to implement.

Lima, Joanna E.

  • Measuring Organizational Cultural Intelligence: The Development and Validation of a Scale

    Joanna E. Lima


    This dissertation reports the development of a five-factor, 21-item measure operationalizing cultural intelligence at the organizational level of analysis, building on the conceptual model espoused by Ang and Inkpen (2008). Organizational cultural intelligence is defined as the organization's capability to function effectively in culturally diverse environments. The development and validation of a scale to measure this phenomenon enables organizations to be able to assess the degree to which they are positioned to be able to function effectively in the global arena. The methodology for the study closely followed DeVellis' (2012) widely accepted steps for scale development. Items for the scale were elicited through a literature review and the use of the Delphi technique with a panel of experts and tested on full-time employees of 10 North American nonprofit organizations (N = 234). Factor analysis was performed through principal component analysis, and a five-factor model emerged. The five factors involved items related to leadership behavior, adaptability, training and development, organizational intentionality, and organizational inclusion. The findings of this study contribute to a small but growing body of literature on organizational cultural intelligence and provide the first measure for this phenomenon that is not based on aggregate individual-level data or referent-shift data. Additionally, the findings provide insight for both researchers and practitioners and have implications for leadership appointments and leadership development in organizations seeking to develop organizational cultural intelligence.

Lopez, April L.

  • Exploring the Relationship Between Spirituality, Leader-Member Exchange Quality, and Stewardship Among Nonprofit Employees

    April L. Lopez


    Stewardship theory has an overall ethical focus based upon a commitment to society-based virtues and rights built upon integrity (Caldwell & Karri, 2005). Stewardship theorists have described agents (e.g., managers) as motivated intrinsically to meet higher-order needs and team players who will act in the best interests of all organizational stakeholders without the need for external controls such as monetary incentives and monitoring (Donaldson, 1990a). The purpose of this quantitative study was to extend stewardship theory to include follower stewardship behavior and spirituality as an additional source of intrinsic motivation and to explore the relationship between follower-rated leader-follower relationship quality (e.g., leader-member exchange [LMX quality]) as well as the potential mediation of differential relationship quality between their leaders and other work group members (e.g., LMX variability [LMX-V]). In addition, the study explored the potential mediation of perceived organizational support (POS) between spirituality and stewardship behavior and LMX quality and stewardship behavior. As hypothesized, the internal mechanism of motivation (i.e., intrinsic higher; Argyris, 1973; Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyder, 1959/2004; Maslow, 1954/1987; McClelland, 1961), the quality of relationship between leaders and followers (i.e., coordination rather than control; Kulkarni & Ramamoorthy, 2011), and the perception of supportive organizational care and concern (i.e., value commitment and identification; Effelsberg, Solga, & Gurt, 2013; Hernandez, 2008) all contributed to the exhibition of stewardship behavior.

Ma, Andrew M.J.

  • Leadership Concept Differences Across Generations in the Hong Kong Workforce: A Mixed-Method Study

    Andrew M.J. Ma


    Substantial practitioner and consulting literature has emerged in the past decades to describe and explain the intergenerational workforce issues, in particular the Millennial Generation or Gen Y phenomenon. Yet, most academic research positing the Millennial Generation as a unique class of workforce that possesses distinctive expectations and behaviors has yielded mixed and inconclusive results so far (Costanza, Badger, Fraser, Severt, & Gade, 2012; E. Parry & Urwin, 2011). Based on implicit leadership theory (ILT), this research examined if different conceptions of leadership in the two generations in Hong Kong, namely the Pre-80s (those who were born before 1980) and the Post-80s (those who were born after 1981), exist. One of the key workforce conflicts identified in the literature is between managers (typically Pre-80s) and their subordinates (typically Post-80s). Building on this hypothesis, the study further posited that the gaps in leadership conceptions across different generations can negatively impact the leader-member relationship and, in turn, negatively impact the job satisfaction and organization commitment across generations, resulting in workforce conflicts between leaders and followers. This research used mixed methods to inquire qualitatively and quantitatively on this research problem. Both the quantitative and qualitative results did not provide support that the two generations have significantly different leadership concepts. The quantitative analysis result, with the support of consistent qualitative analysis results of this study, essentially validates the result from the work of Epitropaki and Martin (2005; i.e., the prototypic ILT difference between the leadership concept and the recognized leadership of reporting leader casts negative impact to the leader-follower relationship and, in turn, impacts workplace attitude like organizational commitment and job satisfaction). The qualitative analysis shows that the negative perceptions on one generation from the other generation were quite evidenced. These negative perceptions (versus intrinsic differences) could be a key factor that causes intergenerational conflict in the organizations.

Mahan, Michael L.

  • The Link Between Implicit Theology and Organizational Climate in Churches: A Quantitative Study

    Michael L. Mahan


    This study drew on Percy's (2010) theorization of implicit theology, more specifically defined as "generic, usually unspoken ideas about the theological realm that have a measurable effect on individual and congregational behavior" (Mahan, 2012, p. 15). Implicit theology represents Schein's (1999) deepest level of organizational culture, specifically within the context of ecclesial organizations. Given the strong link between organizational culture and organizational climate, this study addressed the research question: How strongly do implicit theologies affect the human relations aspects of organizational climate of Christian churches? Following DeVellis' (2012) guidelines, seven scales were developed to measure the implicit theologies of the role of God, the distance of God, the means of salvation, the time of salvation, the morality of man, the constitution of man, and the nature of the church gathering. In instrument administration to three denominationally and geographically diverse congregations (N = 273), these scales demonstrated high reliability (α = .71 to .89) and rWGp values ranging from .41 to .89, indicating moderate to strong agreement. These findings lend empirical support to the definition of implicit theology. Church organizational climate was measured with a series of instruments, including Cheek and Buss's (1981) friendliness scale; Pargament, Silverman, Johnson, Echemendia, and Snyder's (1983) sense of community and church activity scales; and an edification scale developed herein (α = .89). Implicit theologies impacted all dimensions of organizational climate; the highest correlation value was r = .352. These values indicate a strong influence of implicit theologies on organizational climate in churches. These findings have strong implications for the church health field, suggesting that superficial indicators of church health are driven by the theologies held by congregants. This study addressed a gap in the church health field that oft has been criticized for the lack of theological consideration. Many directions for future research exist: (a) the effect of culture on implicit theology, (b) the effect of implicit theologies on church health indicators, (c) the effect of implicit theologies on other dimensions of organizational behavior, (d) exploration of other implicit theologies, and (e) the correspondence of leader theology and implicit theology.

Michel, Karl A.

  • An Examination of Leadership Principles in Matthew 23: Jesus' Authentic Transformational Leadership Approach Compared to the Pharisees' Pseudo-Transformational Leadership Approach

    Karl A. Michel


    This study examined two contemporary constructs for leadership—authentic transformational leadership and pseudo-transformational theories—from the Christian Scriptures as revealed in the Gospel of Matthew Chapter 23. The study of authentic transformational leadership and pseudo-transformational leadership as a contemporary theory of leadership was drawn from the leadership literature. Conversely, the study of transformational leadership behaviors from Matthew 23 was observed from an exegetical examination of specific sections of Christian Scripture in conjunction from the leadership literature. This exegetical process was performed in accordance with socio-rhetorical interpretation and was applied particularly to Matthew 23 for a supporting assessment of transformational leadership behaviors as found in this segment of Christian Scriptures. Authentic transformational leadership and pseudo-transformational leadership behaviors were discovered from the text of Matthew, and it was confirmed that they supported the contemporary models of authentic transformational leadership and pseudo-transformational leadership. This assessment produced some perceptive similarities and differences with both leadership theories, and there was sufficient evidence to confirm that the contemporary theories can be analyzed using biblical texts.

Mumley, William E.

  • Eschatological Narratives in Matthew 23-25 as Normative Clarifiers for Transformational Leadership

    William E. Mumley


    Despite the growing popularity and influence of transformational leadership theory, scholars and researchers have begun raising serious concerns over the axiological ambiguity plaguing its primary behaviors: (a) idealized influence, (b) inspirational motivation, (c) intellectual stimulation, and (d) individualized consideration. This qualitative study, grounded in narrative theory, eschatological theology, and transformational leadership research, explored the potential capacity of a widely respected cultural narrative of the future to generate meaningful values clarification for this model of leadership. Using Robbins' (1996b) sociorhetorical approach to interpreting texts, the study conducted a narrative analysis of the eschatological discourse found in Chapters 23-25 of Matthew's gospel. It concluded that the eschatological text provides the basis for a narratively driven construction of values for leadership found under four categories: (a) transcendent accountability, (b) vigilance, (c) integrity, and (d) honor and service. The combined dynamic of honor and service emerged as particularly helpful toward the clarification of positive leadership values, especially when operating in conjunction with the other factors. The conclusions were observed to apply meaningfully to a wider range of leadership theories and, therefore, do not need to be seen as specific to transformational leadership. However, the usefulness of Matthew's eschatological narrative toward providing significant values clarification to transformational leadership theory emerges positively.

Okaiwele, Gregory E.

  • Rethinking Skilled Migration and Leadership in West Africa: A Qualitative Study

    Gregory E. Okaiwele


    Studies have revealed that the migration of skilled professionals from developing regions, such as West Africa, have led to a shortage of skilled professionals to lead and participate in developmental efforts within the region. Other studies have found benefits in skilled migration in the form of remittances to the sending countries. Globalization has increased the rate of skilled migration significantly. Furthermore, other studies have not, for the most part, included the opinions of the actual migrants and implications for leadership development in the region. As a result, it is necessary to rethink skilled migration. This study focused on exploring the attitudes, experiences, and perceptions of West African professionals who migrated to the United States and the implications for leadership development in the West Africa region. A qualitative narrative approach was utilized, including semistructured interviews and an interrogation of previous propositions. The findings of this study indicate the most influential factors that led the participants to decide to relocate from the West Africa region to the United States. Furthermore, this study discussed the manner in which those factors influenced the participants' decision to migrate, the feasibility of their return to the West Africa region, and their perceptions of leadership. Our current knowledge on skilled migration and leadership is enhanced as a result of this study because a more holistic approach that includes the perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of skilled professionals involved in skilled migration is presented.

Pacleb, Theodore G.

  • The Relationship Between Leadership Styles, Leader Communication Style, and Impact on Leader-Member Exchange Relationship Within the Banking Sector in the United States and the Philippines

    Theodore G. Pacleb


    Proceeding from the assumption that leadership is a socially constructed relationship, this study examined the causal link of leadership styles with leader communications styles and the extent to which the mediating role of leader communication styles influenced the quality of leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship and whether cultural dimensions determine differences in preferences for these test variables. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, three regression models were estimated on data drawn from 441 domestic bank employees in the United States (N = 213) and the Philippines (N = 228). The results showed that leader communication styles mediated the relationship between leadership styles and quality of LMX. Transformational leadership style was negatively related to the communication style of verbal aggressiveness and positively related to preciseness for both the U.S. and Philippine sample groups. Verbal aggressiveness and preciseness partially mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and LMX. Also, transactional leadership was significantly related to leader expressiveness, questioningness, and preciseness, which explained the relationship of transactional leadership with quality of LMX among U.S. respondents. Similar findings were found among Philippine respondents for preciseness and questioningness but differed on leader emotionality. A t test found significant differences in preference for transformational leadership and leader communication styles of verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality, and impression manipulativeness. The implication of the findings draws attention to the importance of leader communiction styles in building productive and enduring dyadic relationships with followers in the workplace. Moreover, the findings underscore the role that leader communication plays in influencing the work environment in manners of conveyance that impact proximal and power relationships. The current study advances leadership research deeper into the realm of communication by probing deeper into the importance of rhetoric in the construction of dyadic relationships.

Ramirez, Andrea R.

  • Acculturation, Cultural Intelligence, and Implicit Leadership Theories

    Andrea R. Ramirez


    The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) study contributed a wealth of knowledge regarding the differences across national/societal cultures. However, it did not attempt to measure the potential variations in implicit leadership theories (ILTs; leadership prototypes) that could occur due to individuals being influenced by more than one national culture within countries, such as bicultural individuals. Variations found within a country can be described by their extent of acculturation or adoption of one or more cultural influences. The extent of a person's acculturation may predict individual ILTs, which are the patterns of attributes that bicultural persons associate with good leaders. In addition, the extent of a person's cultural intelligence (CQ) may interact with acculturation in impacting ILTs because CQ influences a person's ability to understand and adjust mental modes to cultural norm. This study explored the relationships among acculturation, CQ, and ILTs in a sample of respondents from Mexican descent living in the United States. The results of the study provide a better understanding of how variations in national culture impact ILTs. In addition, the findings suggest interpretation of cultural dimensions is complex. Significant findings include (a) differences across acculturation levels regarding expectation for a leader to be characterized by the ILT dimensions of sensitivity and tyranny; (b) very Mexican-oriented individuals (acculturation Level 1) showing more expectation for a leader to be characterized as well-dressed, well-groomed, compassionate, understanding, sympathetic, and sensitive and less expectation for a leader to be domineering and demanding than Anglo-oriented individuals (acculturation Level 3), acculturation serving as a predictor of metacognitive CQ; (c) acculturation and metacogntive CQ clearly interacting thus complicating the picture of cultural effects occurring during adjustments to a new cultural setting; and (d) metacognitive CQ serving as a partial mediator between acculturation level and the ILT dimension of sensitivity.

Rice, Ronnie O.

  • Examining the Moderating Effect of Tenure on the Relationship between Self-leadership Strategies and General Self-efficacy

    Ronnie O. Rice


    Previous research provides conflicting results of the causal relationship between self-leadership strategies and general self-efficacy (Mansor et al., 2013; Manz & Manz, 1991; Marshall et al., 2012; Neck & Houghton, 2006; Neck & Manz, 1996; Norris, 2008; Prussia et al., 1998; Unsworth & Mason, 2012; Williams, 1997). The participants in the study represented governmental sector, non-profit organizations, private corporations and self-employed individuals. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test the moderating effect of tenure on the casual relationship of self-leadership strategies on general self-efficacy. It was hypothesized that tenure will serve as a moderating variable on the causal relationship of self-leadership strategies on general self-efficacy. In the current study, Houghton, Dawley and DiLiello's (2012) Abbreviated Self-leadership Questionnaire (ASLQ) was used to measure self-leadership strategies: Behavior awareness and volition; task motivation and constructive cognition; and Chen, Gully and Eden's (2001) New General Self-Efficacy scale (NGSE) was used to measure general self-efficacy. The results of the study showed that behavior awareness and volition; constructive cognition and age to be statistical significant predictors of general self-efficacy. The implication of these findings may include increased organization performance through company behavior awareness and volition; and constructive cognition trainings and decrease in organization strain (Judge et al., 1998; Manz & Manz, 1991; Manz & Sims, 1986; Neck & Houghton, 2006; Neck & Manz, 1992; Neck & Manz, 1996; Vogel & Feldman, 2009; Wood & Bandura, 1989). The findings could be generalized to the population that is included in various sector of society.

Shero, Phillip A.

  • Embedded Leadership: The Role of Gisu Clan Elders in Uganda in Supporting and Limiting Executive Authority

    Phillip A. Shero


    Research has identified a problem of executive authorities in Africa that operate largely free of accountability and/or balance of power, often resulting in oppression, tyranny, or other abuses of power. In response to calls for greater understanding of indigenous African leadership (Littrell, 2011), this dissertation used problem-focused ethnographic methods to investigate characteristics of Gisu/Masaaba clan elder leadership in East Africa, specifically as elders interact with executive authority. Elders are a tribal form of leadership wherein leaders are embedded in the community but lack political power. The research question asked: What are the modalities indigenous to Gisu culture, specifically from elder councils, that facilitate accountability and balance of power in African governance, and how could biblical descriptions of elders be useful in the Gisu's self-perception and construction of elder-based leadership? The study (N = 49) employed participant observation as well as directed observation and interview-based participant listening with elders, youth, and government leaders to produce rich qualitative data. After coding emergent themes and categories, thick descriptions of Gisu clan elder leadership formed a foundation for analysis. Emergent themes were first analyzed using indigenous typologies and then using analyst-constructed typologies before being interpreted to present an indigenous portrayal of traditional Gisu elders' characteristics, concerns, actions, and modalities. Research data provided support for elders' facilitating accountability through speaking directly to the leader, escalating complaints to higher authorities, and taking the case to the public; the data also offered support, to a lesser degree, for elders facilitating balance of power related to executive authority through formation of supraclan bodies such as the Inzu ya Masaaba and Elders Forum as well as through persistently utilizing the modality of elders' voice to call for reform. Drawing from the research data, the author offered suggestions for how biblical descriptions of elders could be useful in the Gisu's self-perception and construction of elder-based leadership, specifically addressing two threats to elder self-perception and construction of elder-based leadership by way of reclaiming important traditional aspects of eldership.

Spranger, Angela N.

  • A Single-Site Phenomenological Study of Experiences of Antisocial Workplace Behavior: Why People Stay

    Angela N. Spranger


    Individuals in a workplace may perceive antisocial workplace behaviors (AWB) such as bullying, abusive supervision, verbal and psychological abuse, or workplace incivility and still choose to stay in that workplace. This phenomenological study is based on two assumptions: (a) individuals can identify the varying personal reasons why they stay and (b) staying leads to specific individual and organizational outcomes. These outcomes may include decreased creativity and innovation, reduced discretionary effort, and dysfunctional internal competition. In this study, several of Sutton's (2007) Dirty Dozen behaviors emerged in the incident descriptions and the effects of these AWB on employee organizational commitment varied substantially. While phenomenological research findings may not illustrate research question or yield any answers at all, in this study, the participants provided significant insight into their organizational commitment, often connecting it to a greater purpose or set of patriotic values than to affective or continuance factors (Meyer & Allen, 1991), suggesting an area of future scale development. Participants also indicated high levels of organizational engagement despite describing signs of personal withdrawal and self-protection, meriting further research. Further, when they described the presence of participative decision making, their effects of AWB were lessened, also warranting further exploration.

Tippey, Paul A.

  • The Relationship Among Servant Leadership, Organizational Climate, and Employee Outcomes

    Paul A. Tippey


    This study expanded on the current theoretical understanding of servant leadership and offered some insights into the direct effect of servant leadership on both proximal (job frustration) and distal (career commitment) outcomes for individual employees. This study is significant because the effects of servant leadership studied to date have focused largely on the connection of employees to the organization (organizational commitment). The results of this study show that servant leadership has direct effects on how employees view not only the daily nature of their jobs but also the extent to which they may stay in their career. Results of the present study indicate that organizations need to take into account servant leadership and the impact leadership styles have on employees. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.

Tonkin, Thomas H.

  • A Qualitative Study on the Similarities and Differences Between Authenticity and Sincerity From Leaders' Perspective

    Thomas H. Tonkin


    In the first decade of this millennium, two major financial crises occurred in this country. In 2002, the financial collapse of major corporations based upon leader indiscretions left many unemployed, without savings, and without hope. Later, in 2008, a financial crisis of a different sort appeared as many subprime mortgages went into default and sent the U.S. economy into a tailspin. Leadership scholars took heed of this and searched for explanations and answers to these observable social phenomena. In 2005, the emergence of authentic leadership brought new hope to those looking for leadership accountability. However, the 2008 financial crisis might suggest leadership accountability did not improve with the emergence of authentic leadership. The fact remains that there is much work to do as it pertains to authentic leadership and its associated characteristics for leadership accountability. This study aimed to shed new light on the concept of authenticity by answering the question: What are the similarities and differences between authenticity and sincerity? Using authenticity as a baseline and sincerity as a parallel consideration, this research created the model to investigate the similarities and differences. Employing a phenomenological qualitative research approach, eight participants responded to seven open-ended interview questions that captured their opinions, views, and experience on both authenticity and sincerity. The use of textual analysis utilizing codes and categories to aggregate the responses provided the requisite baselines to report on the similarities and differences between authenticity and sincerity. Included in the study are associated conclusions and recommendations for future research.

Tuggle, Mark N.

  • Exploring the Role of Self-Directed Learning in Sales Professionals: A Qualitative Study

    Mark N. Tuggle


    The purpose of this study was to seek to explore the role that self-directed learning (SDL) plays in sales professionals. Research has indicated that sales professionals have a higher level of SDL readiness but has not explained or explored what factors may contribute to the higher SDL readiness level. Sales professionals represent a critical case for purposeful sampling to explore SDL readiness within the context of workplace learning because of their higher SDL readiness scores. In this study, I uncovered antecedent factors that contribute to higher SDL readiness among sales professionals by means of a qualitative, phenomenological study design. The study entailed semistructured interviews with experienced sales professionals to explore how SDL has manifested in their experience—both as sales professionals and more generally in their lives. The interviews were conducted with a sufficient number of participants to achieve saturation of information, and a team of researchers coded the interview transcripts for themes. The findings reveal antecedent factors both internal and external to the sales professionals contribute to their high SDL readiness. The results of the research contribute to the literature on SDL readiness and SDL in workplace learning and set the stage for quantitative research of the antecedent factors that contribute to SDL readiness in the workplace. In this study, I report and discuss findings in detail and propose recommendations for future research.

Van Engen, Robert B.

  • Redemptive Human Resource Development (RHRD): Advancing Ricketson's Concept Through an Inner Texture Analysis of Acts 15-16:5

    Robert B. Van Engen


    This dissertation examines Acts 15-16:5 through a sociorhetorical analysis (Robbins, 1996), specifically an inner texture analysis, to advance Ricketson's (2005) concept of redemptive human resource development (RHRD). Ricketson has not developed the model from its origin in 2005, nor has he defined the term redemption. He did develop the definition for RHRD by inserting "on the basis of a Christian worldview and the principles of the Bible" (Slide 8) into Gilley and Maycunich's (2000) established definition of human resource development (HRD). Still, Ricketson provided no research as to why or how this defines RHRD. Witherington (1998) offered a persuasive connection to RHRD and HRD through a sociorhetorical analysis of Acts 15-16:5. His exegetical analysis provided a foundation to understand how the New Testament and the church developed organizational members as well as identifying HRD practices. An inner texture analysis of the biblical text was used to identify redemption and the literature—as understood from the biblical worldview, New Testament/theological, and leadership context—was used to define redemption. R. Ricketson (personal communication, January 31, 2013) believed that redemptive might not be an appropriate term in the contemporary HRD field because of its religious connotation, but this study proved otherwise. Further, he believed (and the literature has supported his assumption) that HRD embraces a humanistic worldview and, by inserting on the basis of a Christian worldview into the RHRD definition, promoted a challenge to the HRD field, which this study showed. This dissertation discovered and defined redemption for RHRD. The research also developed constructs associated with the term that are useful in explaining RHRD as well as introducing the concept into the HRD field.

Wilson, John H.

  • Empowering Excellence: The Relationship of Employee Self-Leadership and Psychological Empowerment with Performance and Job Satisfaction

    John H. Wilson


    Previous studies in the fields of leadership and management have emphasized the benefits of employee empowerment, including employee outcomes such as improved performance, innovation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and others. However, such previous research has not fully explored the mechanism by which psychological empowerment (PE) affects employee outcomes or possible moderators such as self-leadership. Nor have previous studies specifically examined the role of self-leadership as a potential moderator or mediator between PE and such employee work outcomes. This quantitative research study examined the relative fit of three potential models—(a) direct effect, (b) moderation, and (c) mediation—for the role of self-leadership in the relationship between PE and both job performance and job satisfaction. Findings supported PE as a predictor of self-reported job performance and job satisfaction, self-leadership as a predictor of job satisfaction, and self-leadership as a moderator that strengthens the positive relationship between PE and self-reported job performance.

Witwer, Daniel E.

  • Churning: A Phenomenological Inquiry Concerning Employee Religious Faith and Staying or Permanent Withdrawal Behavior

    Daniel E. Witwer


    Religious faith is not considered to be a serious (Hicks, 2002) or appropriate (Marques, 2006) construct for organizational research. Wellness or well-being theory places religion in a core position (George, Larson, Koenig, & McCullough, 2000; Hattie, Myers, & Sweeney, 2004), but workplace spirituality theorists generally have dismissed religious faith, preferring to focus on spirituality (Paloutzian, Emmons, & Keortge, 2003). Following Hicks' (2002) logic that spirituality and religion are difficult to dissect, this dissertation qualitatively explores the experience of workers applying their religious faith to the decision-making process of remaining or withdrawing from a company. No previous study (conceptual or empirical) has researched the phenomenon of an employee applying his or her religious faith to job continuation, so there is little theoretical understanding of this experience. Using a phenomenological, in-depth interview research design based on a constructionist foundation, this study required the engagement of eight commercial truck drivers from a variety of companies and locations in telling their story of a decision to remain or leave a company. The data were analyzed using values coding method (Saldana, 2013) that identifies the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the research participant as well as pattern matching (Miles & Huberman, 1994). The study concludes by comparing and contrasting the resultant themes with extant literature on workplace spirituality and job continuance that will be useful to leadership and human resource development scholars and practitioners.


Adams, Thomas M.

  • Lifting as We Climb: A Multiple Case Study of Succession Planning in Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Thomas M. Adams
    January 2013


    The nation is facing a shortage of qualified, highly skilled workers. Higher education is not exempt from this phenomenon. In fact, it may be more greatly impacted by the relative age of its workforce and the level of credentials needed to obtain faculty and high-level administrative positions within colleges and universities. As the majority of historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) presidents are in their sixties and nearing retirement age, there is a pending leadership crisis in these institutions. HBCUs must be pragmatic and diligent in preparing to address the intellectual vacuum that will ensue when its educational leaders transition from the labor force. This qualitative multiple case study approach investigates the existence of succession planning in HBCUs. Specifically, an in-depth understanding of the existence of succession planning and barriers, if any, identified in the implementation of success plans by HBCU presidents is examined. Five research questions guided this study, and the findings revealed a major and a secondary theme. The major theme titled Higher Education Academic Environment identified the restraints these presidents encountered inherent in the overall environment of higher education to implementing succession planning. A secondary theme titled Uniqueness of HBCUs identified dynamics specifically related to HBCUs that presidents of these institutions must understand when attempting to implement succession planning. Continued and further research is needed given the uniqueness identified in presiding at HBCUs, the projected silver tsunami of exiting leadership, and the largely nonexistent scholarly data exploring organizational capacity and development activities of the American treasure collectively known as HBCUs.

Babyak, Andrew T.

  • Biblical Leadership at Work Scale Development

    Andrew T. Babyak
    September 2013


    The American Dream, particularly its focus on riches, has captivated Americans since the 1960s; but recent world events, including the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and numerous scandals by financial organizations, have changed the way Americans view work. The faith at work movement began in the 1980s (Miller, 2007) and has been growing at a fast pace in recent years as employees seek more from their jobs than just a paycheck. Employees are searching for meaning in their work, and the fields of faith at work and spiritual leadership have been growing. However, most of the work done in these fields has been religion neutral. Lynn, Naughton, and VanderVeen (2009) posited that current research that has focused on spirituality without religious convictions is too simplistic, and personal religious beliefs must be examined in connection with spirituality and faith. Scholars have postulated that leadership based on the Bible would be divisive and produce negative results for the organization, but no studies have been performed to actually support those attacks (Hicks, 2002). The purpose of this study was to build a new theory of biblical leadership and a scale that may be used to study it. The Biblical Leadership at Work Scale was developed as a result of a thorough review of previous research on leadership and the Bible. This resulted in a theory of biblical leadership that is multidimensional as it integrates the leader's spiritual life, relational and professional abilities, and desire. A leader exhibiting biblical leadership must exhibit the following four components: (a) relationship with God, (b) relationship with man, (c) completing the mission, and (d) organizational relationship skills. A nine-member expert panel examined the instrument to establish face validity. All four of the factors of the scale were studied through a principal component factor analysis and an item analysis that utilized bivariate correlations. Reliability was measured by utilizing Cronbach's alpha (.920 for the entire scale) and a test-retest method of analyzing internal consistency. The research in this study indicated that three of the four factors of the study are valid and reliable to measure biblical leadership, but several of the items need to be examined further, which is explained in the final chapter. This study was a groundbreaking endeavor as it developed a new theory of biblical leadership. It is the opinion of this researcher that biblical leadership is an important theory not only because of the positive effects that it can have on an organization but because it can also help to advance the kingdom of God on earth. There is a need to build upon this study to strengthen the scale so that a strong, reliable, and valid instrument is fully developed to enable the research necessary to examine the effectiveness and outcomes of biblical leadership.

Baker, Marilynn W.

  • A Multiple Case Study of the Dark Side of Leadership: An Exploration of Executives Who Led Their Companies to Disastrous Results Versus Exemplary CEOs Who Did Not

    Marilynn W. Baker
    April 2013


    This multicase study responds to calls for additional research on the dark side of leadership (e.g., Conger, 1990; R. Hogan & Hogan, 2001; Woods, 2007). Dark-side leaders are called by a variety of names including corporate psychopaths (e.g., Babiak, Neumann, & Hare, 2010; Boddy, 2011a), leaders without conscience (Lawrence, 2010), personalized charismatics (House & Howell, 1992), pseudotransformational leaders (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999), rogues (Farrell, 2006; Seidman, 1996), toxic leaders (Lipman-Blumen, 2005; G. E. Reed, 2004; Whicker, 1996), and simply dark-side leaders (Woods, 2007). A review of leadership articles in a variety of business and social science databases found a ratio of approximately 10:1 for positively versus negatively oriented leadership articles. In addition to extending knowledge on the dark side of leadership, this study also responds to Boddy's (2011b) and Lawrence's (2010) calls for research into the leaders of financial institutions associated with the Global Financial Crisis that began in 2007. Boddy (2011b) and Lawrence (2010) posited that financial crises have been caused by dark-side leaders, as had been predicted by Seidman (1996) and Woods (2007). Finally, this study also answers calls for new ways of researching and thinking about leadership (e.g., Conger, 1998; Hunter, Bedell-Avers, & Mumford, 2007; Luthans & Slocum, 2004) by employing a multicase, qualitative investigation of dark-side executive-level leaders in lieu of quantitative studies of supervisors and midlevel managers. Data were collected and analyzed within the framework of the upper echelon theory (Hambrick & Mason, 1984). This study found there were several personal characteristics and strategic choices that differentiated dark-side CEOs from exemplary CEOs. Destructive CEOs exhibited narcissistic egocentricity, Machiavellian manipulation, psychopathic coldheartedness, and avarice at higher levels than exemplary CEOs. They also were more likely to use toxic tyrant and laissez-faire management styles, make short-term decisions with destructive long-term consequences, and commit fraud and other white-collar crimes. The study concludes with a proposed definition of destructive executive leadership and recommendations for further study.

Bosch, David A.

  • A Comparison of Commercial and Social Entrepreneurial Intent: The Impact of Personal Values

    David A. Bosch
    September 2013


    This exploratory study examined the impact of values on commercial and social entrepreneurial intent. Previous studies that have investigated individual variables related to tendencies to engage in entrepreneurship have primarily focused on demographic, personality trait, and contextual variables. However, these studies have added little predictive value to the field; therefore, researchers have begun studying the antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions through the lens of the theory of planned behavior. This study, with a cross-sectional sample of adults (N = 461), adds incremental understanding to individual differences in entrepreneurial intentions beyond the theory of planned behavior by exploring the relationships between values and entrepreneurial intentions. Regression analysis indicated little support that values have a significant direct effect on commercial entrepreneurial intent. Results of regression analysis indicated that self-transcendence and conservatism have a significant direct effect on social entrepreneurial intent. This study examined a competing model where attitudes mediated the relationship between the two higher-order values of self-enhancement and openness to change and the two types of entrepreneurial intent—commercial and social. Results of this study found that the effects of self-enhancement and openness to change were greater than the other values related to commercial entrepreneurial intent; whereas, the effects of self-transcendence on social entrepreneurial intent were significantly greater than self-enhancement. These results support the assertions by Ascigil (2012) that those with social entrepreneurial intentions have different values than their commercial counterparts. Results of data analyses provide a more robust view of the impact that personal values have on an individual's intentions to launch commercial and social ventures. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Carroll, Brian C.

  • Servant Leadership Theory Cross-Culturally: A Comparative Study Between India and the United States

    Brian C. Carroll
    July 2013


    This research study investigated the theoretical servant leadership constructs (love, humility, altruism, trust, vision, empowerment, and service) developed by Patterson (2003) within the southern Asian cultural context of India and the Anglo cultural context of the United States. The researcher also investigated the causal relationships of the seven constructs of this servant leadership model by using simple and multiple regression to test these relationships. The researcher also used a t test for the similarities and differences between the two cultures. This study provided empirical cross-cultural validation of Patterson's theory in India. Overall, this study found both a high degree of statistical significance and a high degree of confidence that organizational leaders in both cultural samples within the information technology industry exhibit Patterson's model of servant leadership, providing a strong foundation for future investigation into these relationships.

Clayton, Keith E.

  • Looking at the Other Side of the Leadership Relationship Coin: Understanding the Influence of Followers' Attachment Style on Personal Growth Initiative and Organizational Commitment

    Keith E. Clayton
    August 2012


    The purpose of this research was to shed light on the interpersonally embedded, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenomena that remain relatively untapped by existing leadership theories. This study used a quantitative approach to investigate the role that attachment theory may have in furthering the understanding of leadership, particularly the leader-follower dyadic relationship, by addressing the following two research questions:
    1. What influence, if any, do individuals' attitudes toward others and themselves have on their motivation for personal growth and development?
    2. What influence, if any, do individuals' attitudes toward others and themselves have on their organizational commitment levels in a dyadic relationship?

    The following measures were used for this quantitative research: Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991), Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Meyer, Allen, & Smith, 1993), and Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998). The research subjects were individuals over the age of 18 who were involved in one of five types of institutions: (a) for-profit, (b) not-for-profit, (c) faith-based/spiritual/religious, (d) government, and (e) academic. The results revealed that there was a statistically significant correlation between an individual's attachment orientation and personal growth. Additionally, the analysis showed that individuals with a secure attachment style have a high correlation to the constructs of self-confidence and purpose for personal growth. Whereas, individuals who possess a fearful attachment orientation had a statistically significant correlation to the constructs of transitions and purpose, and individuals who were catalogued as having a preoccupied attachment style have a statistically significant correlation to the constructs of self-confidence, transitions, and balance. The PGIS comprised four constructs: self-confidence, transitions, purpose, and balance. This research found no correlation between an individual with a secure or dismissing attachment orientation and his or her level of commitment to an organization. However, analyses showed a negative correlation between individuals with an attachment orientation of fearful and all three types of commitments: affective (want to), continuance (have to), and normative (ought to). Whereas, individuals classified as possessing an attachment orientation of preoccupied only had a slight correlation with affective commitment (want to).

Copeland, Mary K.

  • The Importance of Ethical Leadership in the Accounting Industry

    Mary K. Copeland
    February 2013


    The purpose of this study was to examine a multivariate model for predicting leader effectiveness that included both the assessment of the contribution of ethical leadership in predicting the effectiveness of a leader, as well as the impact of related variables that may moderate the relationship between a leader's ethical behaviors and leader effectiveness. Moderating variables included employee preferences and expectations for ethical leadership and the perceived ethical climate of an organization. The study examined leaders within the accounting profession. The research has provided evidence that leaders who are ethical and transformational are more effective, and each of these behaviors can incrementally contribute to explaining and predicting the effectiveness of a leader. The research has not supported the theory that (a) subordinates' preferences and expectations for ethical leadership or (b) the perceived ethical climate of an organization moderated the relationship between a leader's ethical leadership behaviors and the perceived leader's effectiveness. Additional research is encouraged that assists academics and practitioners in determining how these combined leadership qualities may be further developed in leaders to add to their overall effectiveness. Further research, specifically in the accounting profession, is encouraged to restore a profession tarnished with accusations of unethical behavior to one that regains its original prominence based on moral, ethical, and effective leaders.

Cravey, Kristopher J.

  • Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Kristopher J. Cravey
    February 2013


    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

Davenport, John B.

  • Development of the Work Team Cohesiveness Scale

    John B. Davenport
    April 2013


    One of the chief criticisms of the study of group cohesiveness is the lack of a unified definition. To this point, researchers (Cota, Longman, Evans, Dion, & Kilik, 1995; Mudrack, 1989) have complained that the literature on group cohesion is fraught with confusion and a lack of consistency in its measurement. However, as Mullen and Copper (1994) have suggested, the type of group under study can have significant effects on the very nature of group cohesiveness and, subsequently, its interaction with other variables. Accepting the proposition that the type of group under study may very well change the nature of the construct itself suggests that a unified definition of group cohesion may remain elusive. Perhaps then, more context specific definitions and measurement instruments should be the focus of research efforts. Within the scope of the organizational work team, researchers have largely drawn definitions and measurement instruments from other types of groups such as sports teams, military units, and therapy groups to examine work team cohesion which has led to inconclusive results within existing studies as to the structure of group cohesion as well as its impact on numerous organizational variables such as performance or organizational commitment. Therefore, this study proposed the development of a scale specific to the organizational work team and provides a theoretical discussion of the background and need for the scale.

Fogarty, Stephen G.

  • The Impact of Senior Pastor Leadership Behaviors on Volunteer Motivation

    Stephen G. Fogarty
    February 2013


    This study examines the impact of organizational leadership on volunteer motivation in nonprofit organizations by exploring (a) the impact of the transactional and transformational leadership behaviors of senior pastors on volunteer motivation within church congregations and (b) the mediating effects of volunteer trust in and value congruence with the senior pastor on this relationship. Volunteer motivation is conceptualized using self-determination theory, which posits that people are motivated to satisfy their innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness and connects these needs to levels of motivation from extrinsic to intrinsic. The leadership behaviors of senior pastors are conceptualized using transactional and transformational leadership theory which employs the behavior categories of contingent reward, active and passive management by exception, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. A sample of 790 volunteers attending 28 different Australian Christian Churches (ACC) rated the leadership behaviors of their senior pastor as well as their own motivation and their trust in and value congruence with the senior pastor. Regression analyses indicated that senior pastors' transactional leadership behaviors predicted volunteers' extrinsic motivation and that transformational leadership behaviors predicted intrinsic motivation. In addition, volunteers' trust in and value congruence with senior pastors partially mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Gearhart, Troy E.

  • The Measurement of Volunteer Religiosity Integration: Assessing the Influence of Religious Beliefs, Experiences, and Practices Upon an Individual's Decision to Volunteer in a Christian Ministry Context

    Troy E. Gearhart
    March 2013


    The purpose of this study was to use the leadership literature addressing religiosity and volunteerism as a foundation to develop the Volunteer Religiosity Integration Scale. The instrument measures the theoretical construct of religiosity integration in the context of volunteerism. The study is based upon servant leadership theory and is expanded to address the influential effects of religiosity in volunteers. A collection of items was developed, tested for reliability, and validated to measure the influence of religiosity using three of Glock and Stark's (1965) dimensions of religiosity upon an individual's decision to volunteer: (a) ideological, (b) experiential, and (c) ritualistic. The ideological dimension describes the religious beliefs of an individual. The experiential dimension describes religious experiences such as sensing a divine presence as well as supernatural events. The ritualistic dimension includes the public and private practices of religion. These practices include attendance at religious services, prayer, church membership, and financial contributions to a religious organization. The study included 178 volunteers who were at least 18 years of age from churches and parachurch ministries. Content validity, face validity, and construct validity were ascertained. The instrument was determined to be reliable using Cronbach's alpha and a split-half test. Principle component analysis was used to test the hypothesized three-factor construct of volunteer religiosity integration. The results of this study support the Volunteer Religiosity Integration Scale as a valid and reliable instrument for use in the assessment of the influence of religious beliefs, experiences, and practices upon volunteers.

Greasley, Paul E.

  • Exploring the Relationship between a Typology of Personality Preference and Characteristics of Servant Leadership

    Paul E. Greasley
    March 2013


    The heart of this study was in the person and personality of the servant leader. Lewis, Spears, and Lafferty (2008) emphasized that "organizations are the way they are because of the personalities of the leaders" (p. 15). The principal research purpose was exploration of the intersection between Jungian analytical psychology formulated in personality type theory and Greenleaf's servant leadership philosophy. A psychodynamic, quantitative, semi-idiographic, nonexperimental survey method was used as an effective research design. Personality preference was represented by four predictor variables per the four dimensions of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®). Using a nontraditional approach, raw score MBTI® data were obtained and linear transformation of the scores performed with associated scale development, creating four continuous type predictor variables. Servant leadership was represented by three criterion variables (vision, empowerment, and service) as measured by three subscales of the Servant Leadership Profile—Revised©. These constructs are found in Patterson's (2003) servant leadership model. Four demographic control variables were used with one asking whether a survey respondent had direct reports within the structure of the research frame. This unique variable provided an opportunity to consider servant leadership as a vertical or horizontal relationship. Hypothesized relationships were tested using multiple regression requiring a minimum sample size of 100 subjects to detect fairly small R2 values. After assuring that the transformed data met requisite characteristics, three regression models were constructed and one fit model resulted defining a predictive relationship between servant leadership empowerment and the other predictor and control variables.

Greer, Todd W.

  • Humility Isn't Just Personal Anymore: Testing Group-Level Humility in the Organization

    Todd W. Greer
    May 2013


    As a strand throughout history, the humility construct has endured times of great interest and appreciation, as well as disregard and rejection. Research has suffered through challenges with measurement and definition; however, recent upticks in social science research on the construct provide hope for better understanding this potential organizational virtue. Utilizing the framework developed by Tangney (2000), Owens (2009), and Owens, Rowatt, and Wilkins (2011), as well as other literature in the realm of humility, this individual-level construct is examined for its potential extension as a group-level phenomenon. Following a review of the humility within the religion, philosophy, organizational, and psychological disciplines, a scale for group humility is developed. The constructed scale is then tested with emergency medical technicians in an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Following the initial validation of the construct in the EFA, a confirmatory factor analysis is conducted, along with hypotheses testing among a sample of middle school teachers. This two-sample study examines the factors of the resulting perception of group humility scale and its relationship with participative leadership, collective efficacy, organizational citizenship behaviors, and team-learning orientation. The development and empirical investigation of group humility aids the emerging field of humility within organizations by establishing the potential for its emergence and influence at the group level.

Hamstra, Christopher A.

  • Leadership Narrative and the Cocreation of Organizational Values

    Christopher A. Hamstra
    April 2013


    Leadership narrative is a coconstructed action between individuals that is an understudied area within the academic fields of leadership and communication. This qualitative study examines leadership narrative and the themes that emerge from those narratives. While much of the previous literature has examined how narratives impact the values of an organization, this study identified the themes that emerged and were generated from established core values.

Harrison, Janelle L.

  • The Effects of Instructor Transformational Leadership and Verbal Immediacy on Learner Autonomy and Creativity in Online Contexts

    Janelle L. Harrison
    January 2013


    Transformational leadership and immediacy behaviors within educational contexts have received a great deal of attention from researchers in the past few decades. Generally, the literature has focused on the impact of instructor transformational behaviors and instructor immediacy behaviors on educational outcomes. However, the relationship between instructor transformational leadership, verbal immediacy, learner autonomy, and learner creativity had not been explored, specifically in online educational contexts. This research sets forth a method for assessing the relationship among these constructs. Literature on transformational leadership, immediacy, learner autonomy, and learner creativity in educational contexts was reviewed. Models depicting the hypothesized relationship that instructors who display transformational leadership behaviors will achieve increased learner autonomy and creativity compared to instructors who display transactional behaviors were created. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Results confirmed a positive relationship between transformational leadership and learner autonomy and creativity. Results also confirmed the moderating effect of instructor verbal immediacy on learner creativity; however, there was no moderating effect of verbal immediacy on learner autonomy as predicted. This research effort aids in furthering our understanding of how instructional leadership is perceived in online contexts, as well as its effect on learner autonomy and creativity.

Hogan, Shannon L.

  • Stimulating Autonomous Learning Environments: Considering Group Efficacy as Mediating the Relationship Between Perceived Autonomy Support and Self-Determinism in the Learning Environment

    Shannon L. Hogan
    December 2012


    This study researched 120 college students and professors to test the mediation of group efficacy between perceived autonomy support and self-determinism. The study provided surveys to students in eight different classes. Studying multiple classes offered an opportunity to understand the model more effectively and in a broader scope. The classes studied came from both the humanities and a religious framework. The students and professors took the surveys twice during the semester, during the second week of class and the eighth week of class. This study considered a mediating variable to influence the relationship between perceived autonomy support and self-determinism. Group efficacy was hypothesized to mediate this relationship. Because group efficacy takes time to develop, this study ended up as a minilongitudinal, exploratory study. The results of the study provided validation that group efficacy does not mediate the relationship between perceived autonomy support and self-determinism. However, the study showed there was influence between (a) perceived autonomy support and group efficacy and (b) group efficacy and self-determinism. This provided much discussion. The results assist in understanding learning from a collective nature, which is contrary to Western culture. Future research and discussion of groups as being a stimulating method for learning is necessary to expand this research.

Holloway, Joseph B.

  • Employee Job Satisfaction, Psychological State, and Change-Oriented Leadership Behavior in Community Behavioral Health Organizations

    Joseph B. Holloway
    August 2013


    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between three psychological states of an employee (experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities), change-oriented leadership behavior, and employee job satisfaction. The empirical studies that congregate on these variables are extensive and shed valuable insight for both practitioners and theorists, but the combination of these construct variables has not been collectively studied. In this study, I explore the relationship between these variables in addition to examining whether or not change-oriented leadership behavior influences the relationship between an employee's experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities and employee job satisfaction. I propose a model that builds on previous research for how employee job satisfaction is impacted by the employee's psychological state and the change-oriented leadership behavior of his or her leader. A quantitative research design was used to test three proposed hypotheses. The target population consists of employees of nonprofit community behavioral health organizations (CBHOs) in the State of Georgia. The survey was distributed via Surveygizmo®, a web-based stage platform for self-administered survey data collection. The data collection included the control variables age, gender, race, educational level, job type, and organizational tenure since prior research has shown that each of these variables impact employee job satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the proposed hypotheses. Although the three proposed hypotheses were not supported, there were significant correlations between change-oriented leadership behavior and employee job satisfaction, experienced meaningfulness of the work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work, and knowledge of the actual results of the work activities. Research implications of the current study, its limitations, and recommendations for future research are provided.

Huizing, Russell L.

  • The Importance of Ritual for Follower Development: An Intertexture Analysis of Leviticus 23 in the Pauline Corpus

    Russell L. Huizing
    December 2012


    Ritual is often considered too mystical for secular organizations and too empty and formulaic for Protestant Christians. This research begins the work of changing those attitudes by showing the importance of ritual for follower development. An overview of American Protestant discipleship literature confirmed a lack of use of ritual for follower development. This study begins bridging that gap by examining the extent of importation of Jewish festival ritual into the New Testament narrative to increase follower development. However, the outcome of the study was also relevant to secular organizations who seek to strengthen organizational identity and effectively communicate and instill core purpose and values in organizational followers. The study identified the use of ritualization in one of history's largest follower organizations—the church. The research was framed through the question: In what ways does the Pauline corpus use narrative ritual from the Jewish festivals of Leviticus 23 in the development of Christian followers? A review of ritual theory and followership theory and surveys of Leviticus and the Pauline corpus plotted the intersection of these various avenues of research. Rituals embody truth that nurture development of meaning, purpose, and values for followers as well as strengthen social identity. Priestly rituals, like those included in Leviticus, were given by God to develop in His followers the type of behavior, thinking, and beliefs consistent with His righteousness and to create a social identity. The goal of this work was to show that at least a portion of those rituals were not abandoned with the advent of Christ but remained a useful tool for first-century discipleship. Specifically, this research used sociorhetorical critical analysis (Robbins, 1996) to perform an inner texture examination of Leviticus 23 using the parameters of Klingbeil (2007). Additionally, an intertexture analysis of the Pauline corpus using select echo parameters of Hays (1989) was employed. Recommendations for application of this research include the development of biblical ritual for ecclesial contexts and the purposeful use of ritual within organizational leadership.

Jones, Joy A.

  • Toward a Situational Theory of Motivation to Lead: Applying an Interactional Psychology Perspective

    Joy A. Jones
    December 2012


    This study expanded on the current theoretical understanding of motivation to lead (MTL) by utilizing the framework of interactional psychology to test a situational model of MTL that included communication apprehension as a measurement of an individual's personality. This study examined the direct effects of communication apprehension, goal and process clarity, and perceived organizational support on all three dimensions of MTL within a sample of retail employees (N = 170) from building supply stores on the east coast. The moderating effects of perceived organizational support and goal process clarity in the relationship between communication apprehension and MTL were also investigated. Regression analyses indicated a strong, negative relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and affective-identity (AIMTL), social-normative (SNMTL), and noncalculative (NCMTL) MTL. Results of regression analyses of communication apprehension as a predictor of the three dimensions of MTL were consistent with the theoretical perspective of Clemmons and Fields (2011) who reported that values, past leadership experience, and extraversion were significant predictors of MTL, while other personality dimensions and self-efficacy were not predictors of all dimensions of MTL. Results of data analyses indicated that due to its widespread and pervasive effects, CA offers a more concrete and parsimonious measure of personality in predicting an individual's MTL and should be added as a key individual difference variable in the MTL model. Weak support was found for the situational variables predicting an individual's MTL. Other than the positive significant relationship between perceived organizational support and noncalculative MTL, the results of this study support the assertions by Chan and Drasgow (2001) who suggested that individual difference variables are the primary predictors of an individual's MTL. Finally, although goal process clarity (GPC) was found to moderate the relationship between CA and NCMTL, moderation was not supported for other variables or dimensions of MTL. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are presented and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Lentz, Kenda M.

  • Empowerment and Human Agency: The Role of Power Transfer, Control, and Intentional Actions by Leaders on Behalf of an Organization

    Kenda M. Lentz
    April 2013


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover if and how human agency (e.g., intentional human action) contributes to or inhibits empowerment in organizations. This study relied on a purposive sample of adult professionals in leadership positions from government, private corporations, and higher education and drew from various aspects of research on organizational empowerment, the role and use of power in an organizational context, adult cognitive development, and human behavior. Spreitzer (2007) theorized two perspectives of organizational empowerment (social structural and psychological) to explain the role and use of power in organizations. Bandura (1986) described an individual's feeling of competency as perceived self-efficacy which is central to the constructs of human agency and personal mastery. Bandura (2001) conceptualized three ways in which human agency operates: autonomous agency, mechanical agency, and emergent interactive agency. Within the realm of emergent interactive agency, four core features of human agency (intentionality, forethought, self-regulation, and self-reflection) were examined through three modes of agency (personal, collective, and proxy). This qualitative research study explored how the four features of emergent interactive agency contribute to or inhibit the empowerment process in an organizational context. The findings show that human agency positively influences the process of organizational empowerment when the balance of control and autonomy exist. A model of agentic value-based organizational empowerment is provided to illustrate how emergent interactive human agency supports the empowerment process and creates a realm of accountability through the balancing of paired complementary values.

Metheny, Glen A.

  • Faculty in Faith-Based Institutions: Participation in Decision-Making and its Impact on Job Satisfaction

    Glen A. Metheny
    August 2013


    This study examined full-time faculty in faith-based colleges and universities and investigatedthetype of impacttheir participation in the decision-making process had on job satisfaction.Faculty participation in decision making at American universities has been accepted as generally good as well as having positive influences on organizational functioning from an academic point of view; however, it has been reflected in varying degrees in actual practice. Previous studies have examined relationships among faculty at state universities and community colleges, yet little research has been examined in the area of full-time faculty at faith-based universities. This study sampled 145 full-time faculties at faith-based universities and examined the demographic variables of gender, age, years of teaching experience, degree, rank and salary groups, and participation. An analysis of variance demonstrated that the variables of age, years of teaching experience, degree, rank, and salary indicated significant differences between the variables and participation, while gender did not show any significant differences. Additionally, the study examined if there were significant relationships among faculty members' participation in the decision-making process and job satisfaction. Regression analysis indicated that there were no significant relationships. The study also examined if there were any significant differences among demographic variables and general job satisfaction. An analysis of variances showed that there were no significant differences. These results did not support the theory that participation was related to job satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed, and suggestions for future research are presented.

Oginde, David A.

  • Effects of Ethnicity and Intercultural Competence on Follower Trust, Leader-Member Exchange, and Perceptions of Organizational Justice

    David A. Oginde
    March 2013


    Decrying the dearth of leadership studies and theories that address the perceptions of inequity resulting from ethnic diversity, Ah Chong and Thomas (1997) argued that traditional leadership theories offer only limited help in understanding this relationship. Accordingly, the current study traced the sources and causes of interethnic conflicts in various multicultural contexts around the world, especially in Africa. An extensive literature review revealed the need for empirically tested answers that address, or at least explain, the effects of ethnicity and ethnic competencies on the relationships between organizational members and their leaders. A research plan involving a cross-sectional survey design was utilized in which individuals' intercultural competencies were assessed and follower perceptions of leader behaviours within a multicultural context investigated. Multisource data were collected from a sample of followers drawn from employees of diverse organizations in Nairobi, Kenya. Utilizing multiple regression data analysis, the results confirmed trust in leader as predictor of leader-member exchange (LMX), LMX as a mediator between trust in leader and perceptions of organizational justice, ethnic/cultural similarities and intercultural exposure as moderators between trust in leader and LMX, and intercultural competencies as moderators between LMX and perceptions of organizational justice. The results and their implications are discussed and proposals made for advancing current leadership theories as well as providing support for human resource managers in the selection, training, and assessment of workers for diverse groups.

Peltz, David P.

  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Establishing a Robust Qualitative Process for the Identification of Contemporary Servant Leaders

    David P. Peltz
    April 2013


    Much has been written about Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. What has not been written about Dr. King is whether he can be considered a contemporary example of a servant leader. The concept of servant leadership was created by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1977. From that period forward, several books and articles from a qualitative perspective have been written by many scholars as to what constitutes a servant leader. Additionally, several quantitative attempts have been made to establish measurability of servant leadership. Winston (2010) stated that while much has been written on the theoretical and quantitative development of servant leadership, a gap exists within the qualitative realm regarding "deepening our understanding of the theories [servant leadership] we proffer" (p. 180) and that we "should use in-depth interviews and case studies of exemplary servant-leaders in order understand the theory" (p. 180). This dissertation set out to create and establish a repeatable robust qualitative process to identify servant leaders and to determine if Dr. King can be considered a contemporary example of a servant leader. An in-depth look into Dr. King's life provides the platform from which the analysis is conducted. The research methodology and analysis were conducted through a detailed qualitative and quasiquantitative quadratic approach to answer the central question of whether Dr. King can be considered a contemporary example of a servant leader while trying to establish a repeatable robust qualitative process for the identification of contemporary servant leaders, which currently does not exist in the qualitative servant leadership identification arena.

Petrucci, Anthony

  • The Relationship Among Incivility, Tacit Knowledge Sharing, Trust, and Affective Organizational Commitment

    Anthony Petrucci
    September 2013


    The present study expanded on current theoretical understanding of tacit knowledge-sharing antecedents through the addition of the incivility construct to a model tested by Lin (2007). This study explored the relationships among incivility, trust, affective organizational commitment, and tacit knowledge sharing. Incivility was included due to the frequent interpersonal and interactional nature of coworker communication in the workplace from a justice perspective. This is called interactional justice, and interactional justice is civil in nature. This study explored the negative aspects of these interactions in the workplace, and the nonlinear nature of the consequences, through the incivility construct. The explanatory power of incivility when added to Lin's model was evaluated. In addition, affective organizational commitment and trust in the workplace were tested as partial mediators with the relationship between incivility and tacit knowledge sharing. This study used multiple regression with cross-sectional, single-source data (N = 341) from working MBA students and their colleagues. The study demonstrated that incivility predicts tacit knowledge sharing and trust. In addition, trust in the workplace fully mediated the relationship between incivility and tacit knowledge sharing.

Poon, Randall H.

  • The Impact of Securely Attached and Integrated Leadership on Follower Mental Health and Psychological Capital

    Randall H. Poon
    March 2013


    Individual mental health plays a significant role in the successful operation of organizations. Mental health and mental illness issues within the workplace pose an increasingly greater challenge to organizations and its members. A key consideration in addressing these challenges is the role of leadership, particularly leader traits and attributes, and the manner in which these characteristics influence individual workplace mental health, in addition to the necessary psychological resources (as measured by psychological capital) to not only meet workplace demands but to also flourish. In defining mental health, it is also essential to look beyond the traditional biomedical understanding of health and consider its components: psychological, emotional, and social well-being. Looking at health from a broader biopsycho-social perspective, current research in the field of neuroscience and the finding that human brains are "social brains" reveals that how an individual's brain internally makes connections and, in turn, how that individual then connects and relates with others could very much influence another person's psychological, emotional, and social well-being. This study proposed that Bowlby's notion (1982) of attachment, along with Siegel's (2010) integrated triangle of well-being, influences follower mental health and psychological capital. Leadership's responsibility is to then understand how these characteristics, such as attachment style and integration, impact those around them. As such, the study assesses the impact of leader attachment orientation and integration on two key follower outcomes: follower mental health and follower psychological capital—an overarching state-like trait construct consisting of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience.

Reid, Wilbur A., III

  • Development of an Instrument to Measure Level 5 Leadership

    Wilbur A. Reid III
    December 2012


    In Good to Great, one of the best-selling business books in history, Jim Collins (2001) evaluated companies whose stock market performance rose from good to great and found they were all led by a CEO with a surprising blend of personal humility and professional will. These leaders became known as Level 5 leaders. Although the concept has gained great acceptance in the business community and popular press, a validated instrument to measure Level 5 leadership has not yet been developed. The objective of this research project is to develop a validated scale utilizing the attributes that Collins (2001) used to describe these leaders. This study began with 99 attributes from Collins (2001) which an expert review committee refined to 74. An online survey was developed that included the 74 attributes, and 349 subjects evaluated their bosses on a 10-point semantic differential scale for each attribute. Literature has suggested that Level 5 is the same as servant leadership, and Collins (2006) proposed eight untested questions to determine if an individual is Level 5. To test these items, the survey also included a 10-item validated servant leadership scale and Collins' (2006) eight questions. The results showed that there are two very distinct constructs within the 74 attributes that match Collins' (2001) proposed personal humility and professional will constructs and explain 55.2% of the variance within the attributes. The final scale contains five attributes of personal humility and five attributes of professional will. Reliability is very good with Cronbach's alpha of .833 and .845 respectively. The analysis also showed that there is a statistically significant positive relationship between the Level 5 attributes, servant leadership, and Collins' (2006) eight questions. The results of this research open up the doors for implementation in organizations to identify Level 5 leaders and for a wealth of future research on this important leadership construct.

Rohm, Fredric W., Jr.

  • Servant Leader Development at Southeastern University

    Fredric W. Rohm Jr.
    October 2013


    Servant leadership as envisioned by Robert Greenleaf (1970) is a philosophy whereby leaders put the interests and growth of the follower ahead of themselves. Though the concept has been around since antiquity, scholars and practitioners in organizations began to embrace and expand the idea since the early 1990s. There are currently 20 models of servant leadership with 16 associated survey instruments. Colleges and universities may want to instill servant leadership in their students. This study used Wong and Page's (2003) model and their Revised Servant Leadership Profile instrument along with interviews to conduct a mixed-method, concurrent triangulation phenomenology consisting of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. It proposed eight research questions to see if there are any relationships between eight independent variables and the seven dimensions of servant leadership in Wong and Page's model: (a) developing and empowering others; (b) vulnerability and humility; (c) authentic leadership; (d) open, participatory leadership; (e) inspiring leadership; (f) visionary leadership; and (g) courageous leadership. Specifically, the study examined whether exposure to servant leadership concepts at Southeastern University (SEU) make a difference in students' self-perception of servant leadership. The eight independent variables are (a) gender, (b) ethnicity and nationality, (c) age, (d) academic college, (e) leadership-related courses taken at SEU, (f) SEU Leadership Forum attendance, (g) leadership positions held at SEU, and (h) number of years at SEU. The findings showed that gender, ethnicity, attending the SEU Leadership Forum, and taking leadership-related courses at SEU were not statistically significantly related to any of the seven servant leadership dimensions. A student's college was related to vulnerability and humility. Years at SEU was related to developing and empowering others. Age was related to developing and empowering others, inspiring leadership, visionary leadership, and courageous leadership. Holding a student leadership position at SEU was related to developing and empowering others, inspiring leadership, and visionary leadership. The study concluded with the implication of the findings, areas for future research, and advice on encouraging servant leadership development.

Smirnova, Anna R.

  • The Misalignment of Resources to Preferred Strategies in Resource-Dependent Environments

    Anna R. Smirnova
    April 2013


    Organizations work, interact, and depend on the environments that surround them. The quality, quantity, and type of resources attracted by the organization often misalign with needed resources and force the leader to make strategic choices and changes in order to sustain operations. Resource scarcities force organizations and their leaders to access resources from other actors in the environment and pursue new innovations that use alternative resources. This research applies a qualitative phenomenological approach to discovering the actual experiential process of 10 leaders as they faced the challenge of making strategic changes and choices in an attempt to realign available resources. Through content analysis of the interviews and the imaginative variation method of the findings, the study revealed that the major source of uncertainty in Russia are the laws and the government regulations, economic fluctuations and geopolitical complexities, and the instability of national contributors. The resource pool consists of human, financial, and intellectual resources, and nonprofits are highly dependent on its partners such as donors and volunteers, though consider it a subject for multiplication rather than reduction. The development of good relationships with partners is strategy number one for the purpose of the constant acquisition of resources and network development. The next strategy recommended by coresearchers is an ability to change and adapt, including the ability to anticipate changes in the environment and to act accordingly. There is also a discussion on the subject of the context and national ownership that were considered to be keys for any successful leadership in Russia. Rational choice, a part of the decision-making strategy that helps the leader to be a wizard with resources, align the existing ones and hunt for new ones in an ambiguous resource-dependent environment, which is also discussed.

Sokoll, Shane M.

  • Servant Leadership: A Quantitative Exploration of the Relationship Between Servant Leadership and Employee Commitment to a Supervisor

    Shane M. Sokoll
    April 2013


    Servant leadership is at a critical point in its theoretical development. Although initially introduced to the literature over four decades ago by Greenleaf (1970), the servant leadership construct has not been quantitatively explored until recently. Scholars, such as Liden, Panaccio, Meuser, Hu, and Wayne (in press); Parris and Peachey (2012); and Van Dierendonck (2011), have meticulously described this conundrum. A call for the expeditious and quantitative investigation of servant leadership theory seems to be emanating from within the academy and across industries (Northouse, 2013; Yukl, 2010). Now is the time for servant leadership to be seriously considered and systematically examined. There is an increasing need for scientific evidence to be unearthed regarding how servant leadership works and the organizational results with which it is associated. This study, utilizing previously validated psychometric instruments, examined the essence of servant leadership and found it to have a significant (p < .001) effect on employee commitment, which was exhibited by an increased R2 value of .33. The investigation was carried out among a robust U.S. sample comprised of 240 participants working in more than 16 industries. Respondents to the study's survey were highly diverse in regards to education, age, tenure, and job level. The modern-day proverb, "People quit their boss, not their job," is supported by empirical evidence (Vandenberghe & Bentein, 2009). The financial and operational failures of organizations are often associated with valuable talent voluntarily leaving their organization due to ill-equipped leaders who are unskilled in leading employees (Davidson, Timo, & Wang, 2010). This study offers scientific, empirical evidence for organizational decision makers to consider regarding an emerging leadership approach that has a superior effect on cultivating employee commitment, beyond that of the task-oriented leadership styles so commonly exhibited in today's modern work environments. Likewise, organizational scientists interested in quantitatively exploring a leadership construct that has promise for returning superior results at individual employee and organizational levels might consider the content of this study and build upon its research design.

Trujillo Perez, Lorry M.

  • The Emotional Fuel of Leadership Exploring Leadership as Communicated Through Ancient Roman Sculpture: In Pursuit of a Social Construction of Leadership

    Lorry M. Trujillo Perez
    April 2013


    This research offered an opportunity to contemplate, to analyze, selected pieces of art in an attempt to extrapolate a deeper understanding of leadership as communicated through the handwork of ancient artists. In a historical period of intellectual growth spurred on through geographical adventure rife with conflict both within and from outside of the Roman Empire, the research sought to understand the emotional fuel that these artists and their subjects provided as historical record of their understanding and portrayal of leadership both in context and in how the contemporary viewer may understand it today. The intent of the research was to explore a medium not usually included in the study of leadership, that of art. The project proposed a qualitative study of Roman sculpture from 27 B.C. through 337 A.D. Through the use of grounded theory methodology, the research discovered major themes of leadership communicated through the art form of sculpture. Through research that was emergent and interpretive, specific sociopolitical and historical context as a guide, leadership theory was made discoverable through contemporary interpretation.

Tucker, Paula A.

  • A Phenomenological Self-Actualization Study of People in Leadership Positions With and Without Learning Disabilities: Examining the Degrees of Learner Autonomy

    Paula A. Tucker
    February 2013


    In the last decades, learner autonomy has received a bevy of attention in education literature in the context of leadership dimensions and student-centered learning. The construct of learning disabilities has also experienced significant growth in empirical studies from the primary, secondary, and postsecondary educational arenas. However, there is a massive gap in the field of social science literature on the phenomenon of leaders with learning disabilities and learner autonomy in global organizations. The study was conducted by collecting phenomenological self-actualization narrative data to investigate if people with learning disabilities in leadership positions exhibit a higher degree of learner autonomy versus people without learning disabilities in leadership positions. Six adult leaders—three with a learning disability and three without a learning disability—in diverse leadership roles from global organizations were purposefully selected to participate in this research. The subjects shared their stories from a phenomenological, self-actualization approach to human nature. The study found that leaders with and without learning disabilities exhibit similar learner modalities and learning styles. However, leaders with learning disabilities exhibit higher degrees of learner autonomy (initiative, persistence, and resourcefulness) within their leadership repertoire than leaders without a learning disability except for the exhibit of desire. Furthermore, leaders without learning disabilities are highly self-regulated, as theorized by Zimmerman's (1990) characteristics of self-regulation (i.e., self-observation, self-judgment, and self-reactions) in leading others in diverse organizations. Leaders without learning disabilities also exhibit levels of high self-efficacy and social cognitive skills to remain sustainable in diverse leadership roles as theoretically supported by Bandura (1986). Collected data were rigorously analyzed using Researchware HyperRESEARCH 3.5.1 (Hesse-Biber, Dupuis, & Kinder, 1990). A theoretical model illustrates the constructs of learner autonomy in relation to leaders with and without learning disabilities as it relates to Confessore's (1992) four conative factors of learner autonomy—desire (Meyer, 2001), resourcefulness (Carr, 1999), initiative (Ponton, 1999), and persistence (Derrick, 2001).


Adamson, Kathryn A.

The Ecology of Leadership: Examining the Relational Dynamics of Dyads Through the Lens of Symbolic Interactionism

Arguello, Valerie J.

Exploring the Relationship Between Learner Autonomy and Sustainability in Global Missions: A Case Study of Kenyan Leaders

Clay, Crystal B.

Career Development of Local Talent in Global Organizations: A Bermuda Perspective

Cook, Ronald G.

Profile in Leadership: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Examination of Abraham Lincoln's Leadership During the Civil War Years

Coggins, Eric D.

The Relationship of Followers’ Perceptions of Leaders’ Servant Leadership Behaviors to Followers’ Self-Ratings of the Four Components of Psychological Capital: A Comparative Study of Evangelical Christian Leader-Follower Relationships in the United States and Cambodia

Crowther, Steven S.

An Examination of Leadership Principles in 1 Peter in Comparison to Authentic and Kenotic Models of Leadership

Hartley, David H.

Yǒng qì: The Assessment of the Inventory of Leadership Courage in Support of the Construct of the Adult Self-Directed Leader

Hunsaker, William D.

Spiritual Leadership as a Universal Construct: An Empirical Study of Fry's (2003) Model of Spiritual Leadership in a South Korean Context

Keebler, Daniel W.

Organizational Commitment, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention: A Study of the Baby Boomer Generation

Kilbourne, Michelle L.

Measuring Organizational Leadership Context: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Instrument

Marshall, J. Alan

Ethical Leadership, Prototypicality, Integrity, Trust, and Leader Effectiveness

McCabe, Laurie A.

Human Values of Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Analysis of the Human Values of Social and Traditional Entrepreneurs

Muhlenbeck, Liz Boulieris

Following After Hope: An Examination of the Relationship Between the Goal-Directed Affects of Hope and the Dimensions of Courageous Followership as Measured in the Healthcare Industry

Norbutus, Thomas J.

Scale Development for Emergent Leaders

Patrick, Michael

Leadership Aesthetics: Moments of Enactment

Renz, Lisa M.

What Organizational Leaders Need to Know to Manage Those Organizational Practices Employees Perceive as Invasive or an Invasion of Privacy

Rivera, Orlando

Collegial Hierarchy: The Integration of Vertical and Shared Leadership at Saint Benedict's Monastery in St. Joseph, Minnesota

Sanders, Charles G.

Measurement of the Intention to Exhibit Leadership Behavior: Development of a Scale

Stephens, Jennie L.

The Effects of Calling, Career Commitment, and Organizational Commitment on Motivation to Lead

Tomlinson, Jon C.

Romans 12 Motivational Gifts and Nurses: An Investigation of Job Satisfaction, Person-Job Fit, and the Clifton StrengthsFinder® Assessment

Vondey, Michelle

Followership: How Followers Understand What It Means to Follow


Buford, Maurice A.

The Controlled Discipline of Servant Leaders: A Qualitative Study

Chavez, Elizabeth G.

Servant Leadership in Bolivia: A Phenomenological Study of Long-Term Effects of a Founding Servant Leader on Two Educational Organizations

Duhart, Brian L.

The Measurement of Personal Trustworthiness in Adult Self-Directed Leaders

Earnhardt, Matthew P.

The Correlation between Person-Job Fit, Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, and Motivational Gifts in the Military Context

Easley, Bryan R.

Francis Asbury and the Imitation of Christ: Comparing the Leadership of Francis Asbury to a Mimetic Christological Model

Guichard, Jeffrey L.

An Application of Ancient Chinese Philosophical Beliefs of Leadership as Defined Within Sun Tzu‘s The Art of War: Creating an Instrument to Measure the Strategic Intelligence of a Leader

Hirschy, Mary Jo “Jody”

Servant Leadership in China: An Exploration of Servant Leadership, Humane Orientation, and Confucian Doctrine of Jen

Lewis, James G.

Tendency for Knowledge Transfer Effectiveness Scale Development

Mack, Tonya F.

Incremental Effects of Instructor Leadership Behaviors on Student Commitment and Intent to Continue in Course Studies: A Comparative Study

Porter, Tracy H.

The Power of Transformational Leadership: The Effect on Self-Efficacy, Spirituality, and MTL

Norris, Sharon E.

Human Agency and Learner Autonomy Among Adult Professionals in an Organizational Context: Towards a New Science of Autonomous Leadership and Development

Riesenmy, Kelly R.

Organizational Leader Sensemaking in Healthcare Process Changes: The Development of the Electronic Medical Records Expectation Questionnaire.

Sales, Yolonda C.

The Impact of Mentoring Relationships on the Career Success of Women Scientists in Corporate America


Eames, Douglas N.

A Phenomenological Heuristic Approach to Identifying the Role of Succorance and Nurturance in Developing a Leader–Follower Upward-Spiraling Relationship to Generate an Autonomous Workforce

Erickson, Karl J.

The leadership styles adopted by mid-grade and senior military officers: Do senior field grade officers lose flexibility in selecting contingency leadership styles?

Franklin, Richard S.

Exploring the Moral Development and Moral Outcomes of Authentic Leaders

Hale, Jeff R.

A Philosophical Inquiry Into the Meaning of Leading Organizations in Chaotic Times Through an Application of Paul Ricoeur's Interpretation Theory to John's Apocalypse

Hanchell, Tejado W.

The Davidic Model of Leadership Succession: An Exegetical Study of 1 Chronicles 28.

Hardgrove, Mark E.

The Concept of Apostleship in the Undisputed Epistles of Paul as it Relates to Paul's Self-Concept and Leadership Paradigm

Jenkins, Evelyn Y.

The Effects of Leader Task-Oriented Behavior on Employee Performance.

Leppink, Craig K.

Pygmalion Training in a For-Profit Organization: The Nondeceptive Creation of the Pygmalion Effect

Powell, Freda J.

The Impact of Mentoring and Social Networks on the Entrepreneurial Leadership Characteristics, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Overall Business Success of Women Who Own Small Government Contracting Businesses

Purvis, Danny B.

Developing a Four-Vector Model of Empowerment by Examining Pauline Leadership Attributes: Implications for Secular Leadership Theory

Smith II, John P.

The Effects of Self-Efficacy and Spirituality on the Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Lead Among Redeploying Soldiers as Moderated by Transformational Leadership

Spencer, J. Louis

Vision Conflict Within Pastoral Ministry

Wright, David A.

Exploring the Intentions of Founders and Long-Term Executives: A Qualitative Look at Succession Planning in Human Service Organizations


Boorom, Richard

Spiritual Leadership: A Study of the Relationship Between Spiritual Leadership Theory and Transformational Leadership

Boush, Stephen

Third Culture Kids and Host Country Nationals: The Impact of Sociocultural Values, Multiculturalism, and Self-Efficacy on the Motivation to Lead in a Globalized World

Burkitt, David C.

Towards a Contemporary Understanding of the Leadership Qualities of Ignatius of Loyola Evident in His Writings: A Content Analysis of the Primary Source Letters

Carthen, Jason D.

A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Psychological Antecedents of Preferred Leadership Behavior in a Sports Context

Danley, David A.

Toward an Understanding of the Kenosis of Christ: A Proposed A Priori Constituent to Transformative Leadership Traits in Philippians 2:5-11

Fitzgerald, Debbie T.

Exploratory Study of Leadership: Assessment of Perceived Listening Skill and Leadership Style of Nurse Leaders/Managers

Garbowski, Mary Ann

Transformational Leadership and the Dispositional Effects of Hope, Optimism, and Resilience on Governmental Leaders

Holritz, Paul J.

Exploring the Relationship Between Religious Beliefs and Implicit Leadership Theory: A Study of the Leadership Preferences of Japanese Employees

Idowu, Theophilus O.

Toward a Leadership Framework for Rebuilding Oppressed People Groups: A Study of Exodus 18:14-24 Using Insights From Black Liberation Theology

Lehnert, Alina B.

The Influence of Strengths-Based Development on Leadership Practices Among Undergraduate College Students

Lowhorn, Greg L.

The Effect of Supportive Organizational Leadership, Organizational Socialization, and Satisfaction With Supervision on Turnover as Mediated by Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Faculty

Mensch, Kirk G.

Belief and Moral Judgment: Considering Implications of a Religious Paradox in Neo-Kohlbergian Moral Reasoning

Moore, Bruce R.

The Role of Value As an Antecedent to Cognitive Engagement

Moulton, Sheldon C.

Taking the GLOBE Study Further: An Examination of Racial and Ethnic Influences on Conceptions of What a Prototypical Leader Should be in the South African Context

Nida, Robert L.

Leadership Power and Take-Charge Behaviors in a Workforce Turnaround Performance Improvement Initiative: A Mixed Methods Study

Oney, R. Michael

Exploring the Causal Relationship of Emotional Intelligence to Clergy Leadership Effectiveness

Pepper, Robert C.

The Impact of Motivation to Lead on College Students’ Cocurricular Involvement

Self, Catherine L.S.

Love and Organizational Leadership: An Intertexture Analysis of 1 Corinthians 13

Sims, Bryan D.

Complexity, Adaptive Leadership, Phase Transitions, and New Emergent Order: A Case Study of the Northwest Texas Conference of the United Methodist Church

Swalm Jr., James E.

The Development of Shepherd Leadership Theory and the Validation of the Shepherd Leadership Inventory (SLI)

Waddell, Jane T.

Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Servant Leadership Attribution and the Leader‘s Emotional Intelligence

West, G. R. Bud

Expert, Coercive, Legitimate, Referent, and Reward Power Bases as Moderating Variables Upon the Relationships Between Service, Humility, and Shared Vision With Affective Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction Among Members of the U.S. Navy

Wetzel, David W.

The Measurement of Personality in the Adult Worker: A Basis for the Psychodynamic Approach to Leadership

Zarate, Manuel A.

The Leadership Approach of Jesus in Matthew 4 and 5


Berry, Jason R.

The Relationships Among Leadership Practices, Organizational Climate, and Organizational Commitment Within Church Ministry Settings

Buvoltz, Katherine A.

Exploring Constructivist Leadership Resistance to Online Learning in a Liberal Arts Institute of Undergraduate Higher— Education

Christopian, Frank

Organizational Culture as a Mediating Factor on Knowledge Management Systems in the Aerospace and Defense Industry

Clemmons, Alton B.

Values as Determinants of Motivation to Lead

Dimitrova, Marina

An Empirical Test of the Servant Leadership Theory in a Bulgarian Context

Falcon, Hector

Exploring the Motivating Factors That Contributed to the Founding of a Biblical Worldview Leadership Training Organization: A Phenomenological Study of an Entrepreneur

Garmon, Kelly M.

Antecedents of Self-Efficacy Beliefs: A Phenomenological Investigation of Women Leaders in the Credit Union Industry

Gary, Judson E. III

Evaluation of the Dian Scales as a Foresight Measure

Grant, Kevin

Shift in Spiritual Leadership: Analysis of Metanoia Stories to Get at the Spiritual Aspect

Gray, David R.

Beyond the Perceived Benefit of Employer Tuition Reimbursement Programs: A Qualitative Inquiry into Employee Graduate and Postgraduate Education as a Mediator of Employee Retention and Development

Hoehl, Stacy E.

The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Student Educational Outcomes as Moderated by Verbal and Nonverbal Immediacy

Hoffman, Paul

Mentoring the Future of Organizations

Howard, Christopher S.

Transference of Self-Efficacy Beliefs From Leaders to Followers and Its Link to Perceptions of Leaders Being Transformational

Hughes, Anthony W.

Game Theory as a Decision Making Tool for Leaders: An Evaluation Using Huntington’s Clash of Civilization Model

Hutchcraft, Dale R.

Functional Learner Autonomy and Christ‘s Leadership Development of His Followers

Jacobs, Gilbert A.

How Exemplary Christian Leaders Discern Their Higher Purpose

Jewe, Ronald D.

Faith and Ethics: Religiousness and Prayer as Predictors of Ethical Attitudes among Undergraduate Business Students at Christian Universities

Johnson, Patricia R.

How Does a Politician’s Personal Faith Inform the Experience of Political Decision-Making?

Kilroy, John J.

Development of Seven Leadership Behavior Scales Based Upon the Seven Leadership Values Inspired by the Beatitudes

Lane, Michael S.

The Moderating Effects of Employee Spirituality on the Relationship Between Uncertainty Management Fit and Job Satisfaction and Creative Innovation

Matti, Aaron K.

Why Charisma Works: A Case Study Exploring the Effects of Charismatic Leadership on the Kenyan East African Pentecostal Churches’ Denomination

Martini, Peter H.

Toward an Integrated Model of Visionary Leadership: A Multilevel Study

McDermott, Melissa H

Culture and Leadership in Transition: Comparing Perceptions of Cultural Values, Cultural Practices, and Leadership Preferences across Generations in Israel, South Africa, and the United States

McPherson, Clarence E.

A Consideration of the Relationship of the Romans 12 Motivational Gifts to Job Satisfaction and Person–Job Fit in Law Enforcement

Morgan, Louis F.

The Impact of Trust in Confidant on the Relationship Between Self-Disclosure and Job Satisfaction Among Pastoral Leaders in the Church of God of Prophecy in the

Lawson, Dan

Investigating a Global Axiology: Looking for a Global Leadership Ethic

Novak, Daniel A.

Leadership of Organizational Networks: An Exploration of the Relationship between Leadership and Social Networks in Organizations

Okpanachi, Joseph

Leader Actions and Behaviors That Create Hope in Followers

Rennaker, Mark A.

Listening and Persuasion: Examining the Communicative Patterns of Servant Leadership

Ricketson Sr., Rusty S. An Exploration of the Relationship of Leadership Styles and Dimensions of Courageous Followership
Rittle, Dennis C. Moving Beyond Self and Others: The Role of Spirituality in Conflict Management
Solan, Ann M. The Relationships Between Emotional Intelligence, Visionary Leadership, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Continuing Higher Education
Stadler, Anita G Leadership Development by Divine Design: An Exploration of Christian Leadership Emergence Theory in the Corporate Context
Traüffer, Hazel C. V. Towards An Understanding of Discernment: A 21st-Century Model of Decision-Making
Webb, Matthew T. An Exploration of the Relationship Between Moral Reasoning and Leadership Style of Athletic Team Coaches
Winner, William D. The Measurement of Sternness in an Adult Self-Directed Leader


Barfoot, D. Scott

Antecedents of Leader–Follower Trust in a Christian Church Organization

Brownson, Harvella E.

The Role of Celebration in Organizational Culture:  A Case Study

Cancelleri, John P.

An Exploratory Study of Leadership Perspectives of Bar Association Presidents in the Commonwealth of Virginia

Colbert, David R.

Nonverbal Cues of the Leadership Selection Process:
Leadership Selection in a Small Group

Dean, Benjamin P.

Cultural Intelligence in Global Leadership: A Model for Developing Culturally and Nationally Diverse Teams

Fuller III, Arthur F.

The Influence of the Enron Scandal on Media Portrayals of Leadership

Hawkins, Donna P.

How to Reach the Masses: An Appreciative Inquiry Study of Women Clergy in the African American Baptist Church

Hemby, Samuel S.

Enhancing Leader Credibility in Church Leadership Trainees:
Effective Mentoring Practices

Hrinda, Audrey A.

United States Coast Guard Transformational Leaders
Use of Positive Psychological Capacities

Irvin, Steve M.

The Role of Culturally Endorsed Implicit Leadership Theories in Intercultural Mentoring Relationships

Johnson, Brenda E.

Taking the Child to Work: The Relationship of Adult Attachment Styles And Implicit Leadership Theories in Organizational Setting

Kisling, Reid A.

Character for Leadership: The Role of Personal Characteristics in Effective Leadership Behaviors

Lucas, Kevin A.

Examining Servant Leadership within Virtual and Face-to-Face Teams

Mansfield, Stephen L.

The Relationship of CEO’s and Top Leadership Teams’ Hope With Their Organizational Followers’ Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, and Retention Intent

Markow, Frank A.

Calling and Leader Identity: Utilizing Narrative Analysis to Construct a Stage Model of Calling Development

McIntosh, Timothy A.

How Peruvians Define and Practice Leadership

Moore-Davis, Feleccia R.

Impact of Spirituality on Leader-Member Exchange and Job Satisfaction

Nixon, Maureen M.

The Phenomena of Change: A Qualitative Study of the Perspective of the Organizational Citizen

Norbutus, Diane K.

Exploring the Experience of Organizational Transformation:
Contrasting Episodic Change with Continuous Change

Parolin, Jeanine L.

Investigating the Distinctions Between Transformational and Servant Leadership

Rahschulte, Tim

Understanding How to Change: An Inductive Determination of How Agents of State Government Plan, Lead, and Sustain Change

Ramphal, Dwarka

The Role of the First Beatitude in the Practice of Leading: Two Case Studies

Reye, Elsie V.

An Inquiry Into the Applicability of Self-Leadership to Missionary Leadership: A Case Study

Richardson, Rickey E.

Exploring Servant Leadership Theory Within the Congregation of the Sisters of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament, Corpus Christi, Texas

Scalise, Eric T.

Compathic Leadership: A Qualitative Study to Examine the Cascading Effects of Compassion and Empathy on the Emotional Labor of Authentic Leaders

Scuderi, Nicole M.

Perceptions of the Principal of a Learning Organization

Shirey, William J.

Leader-Follower Communication in the 21st Century:
How Distractions Can Influence Relationships

Valentine, Mary D.

Psychological Exchange between Leaders and Followers:
A Grounded Theory

Wallace, James R.

Leadership in At-Risk Communities: The Case of Myles Horton

Welsh III, William O.

Transformation Changes Everything: Exploring Organizational Leadership Challenges in an “Aspiring-to” Transformative Environment


Allen, Stuart A.

Exploring the Nature of Flawed Leadership

Allen, Viviette

Moral Failures of Exceptional Leaders: A Qualitative Study

Ayers, Michale

The Relationship of Ego Identity Status to Effective Leader Behavior
Barrett, Paul T. The Effects of Group Coaching on Executive Health and Team Effectiveness: A Quasi-Experimental Field Study
Cerff, Karen The Role of Hope, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation to Lead in the Development of Leaders in the South African College Student Context
Choi, Keunok The Impact of Motivational Language and Transformational Leadership of the Pastor on Volunteers' Job Satisfaction in Korean Southern Baptist
Coe, James G. Autonomous Learning and Constructivist Leadership: A Case Study in Learning Organizations
Daigle, Connie Exploring the Relationships Among Standards-Based Education Reform, Leadership, and Teacher Work Outcomes
Dingman, Walter Servant Leadership's Role in the Succession Planning Process: A Case Study
Duby, David How Leaders Support Teachers to Facilitate Self-Regulated Learning in Learning Organizations: A Multiple-Case Study
Elele, Joyce U. Participation in Decision Making and Organizational Commitment:
A Comparison of Americans and Nigerians
Joseph, Errol An Exploration of the Relationship between Servant Leadership Attributes and Leaders' Negotiation Strategy
Lewis, Carol From Community College to College Community: Evolving a Metric for Collegiality in a Community College Setting
Marchese, Anthony An Analysis of the Relationship between Meaning in Life and Engagement to Burnout in Second and Third Tier Leaders
Martel, Allen The Experience of Followers: Investigating a Link between the Informal Communication Network and Leadership
Matteson, Jeffrey The Emergence of Self-Sacrificial Leadership: An Exploration of the Theoretical Boundaries from the Perspective of the Leader
Matviuk, Sergio G. A Comparison of Leadership Behavior Expectations between United States Managers and Mexican Managers
Moosbrugger, Daniel The Leadership of a Law Enforcement Chaplain – Influence, Effectiveness, and Benefit to the Agency and Community: A Case Study of the Arlington Police Department, Arlington, Texas
Moss, Kenneth The Relationship of Mentoring with Clergy Career Outcomes

Mularski, Dan J.

The Effects of Systematic Goal Setting on the Self-Efficacy of Juvenile Male Offenders

Munley, Almarie E.

CEO Leadership Behaviors, Top Management Teams, and Organizational Performance: A Study of Guatemalan Organizations

Niewold, Jack

Incarnational Leadership: Towards a Distinctly Christian Theory of Leadership
Noel, Daniel Cohesive Strategies for Group Leadership: The Relationship of Cohesion to Stages of Group Development
Okpara-Onu, Chinyere Exploring Transformational Leadership Practices and Effectiveness in Nigeria: The Implications for Female Leaders

Serrano, Magda

Servant Leadership: A Viable Model for the Panamanian Context?

Sorbo, Keith

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Religion and Implicit Leadership Theories: A Study of the Leadership Preferences of Muslim and Christian Students in Indonesia

Walker, Jennifer Johnson

The Servant-Led Institution: A Case Study Defining Servant Leadership in the Not-For-Profit Social Service Organization

Wallace, Jonathan

The Relationship of Leadership Behaviors With Follower Performance: A Study of Alternative Schools

Wiggins, Frank

Leadership Lessons of Jesus' use of conflict in the gospel of Matthew


Alexander, Paul H.

Professor as Leader of Students' Faith Development

Amy, Amy Hawkins

Leaders as Facilitators of Organizational Learning

Baumeister, Paul

Implicit Leadership Theory in the U.S. : A Comparative Study of Mexican Immigrants, Mexican Americans, and Non-Hispanic Americans

Chandler, Diane J.

An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Spiritual Renewal, Rest-taking, and Personal Support System Practices on Pastoral Burnout

Chandra, Reggie J.

Perceptions of an Effective Leader by Professional Traffic Operations Engineers

Dillner, Doug

The Translation of the Inventory of Learner Resourcefulness as a Predictor of Leadership Behaviors: Assessing the Level of Resourcefulness Intentions in the Adolescent Autonomous Learner as a Leadership Intervention

Ellis, Byron A.

Employees' Reaction to the Introduction of Enterprise Resource Planning System

Erickson, Robert W.

Exploring the Antecedents of Motivation to Lead and the Affects of Collective Efficacy

Erickson, Rol D.

Managing Multiple Organizational Identities: Evaluating Pratt and Foreman's Classification Model

Gomez, Doris

Leadership Development: Student-Specific Characteristics as Predictors of Retention and Attrition in an Online Doctoral Leadership Program

Hargis, Linda

Appreciative Inquiry in Higher Education as an Effective Communication Tool: A Case Study

Irving, Justin

Servant Leadership and the Effectiveness of Teams

Kanne, David W.

Emotional Intelligence and the Transformational Learning Journey of 30 Senior Pastors Who Participated in LEAD

Kohomban, Jeremy C.

Beliefs and Behaviors of 40 Indigenous Sri Lankan Christian Leaders

Koshal, Jeremiah Ntaloi Ole

Servant Leadership Theory: Application of the Construct of Service in the Context of Kenyan Leaders and Managers

Lee, Pamela Chandler

Cognition and Affect in Leader Behavior: The Effects of Spirituality, Psychological Empowerment, and Emotional Intelligence on the Motivation to Lead

Makin, Gregg A.

Understanding the Turnover Intentions of Youth Pastors

McCleland, Rob

The Executive Coach's Experience: A Qualitative Phenomenological Exploration

Moran, Ramon

Spiritual Formation as Experiential Learning: Exploring the Relationship of Learning Style with Spirituality Type and Spiritual Growth on Christian College Campuses

Oh, Myung Seon

Impact of Confucian Values on Church Leaders' Leadership Styles
in the Korean Assemblies of God

Palser, S. Joel

The Relationship between Occupational Burnout and Emotional Intelligence Among Clergy or Professional Ministry Workers

Pauls, Toni Steffensen

A Study of the Relationship Between Transformational and Transactional Leadership, and Conflict Management Styles in Ohio College Presidents

Robinson, Wilma P.

Leaders' Journeys to Recovery and Renewal: Actions and Reactions of Leaders After the September 11th Tragedy

Scurlock, Michael C. W.

Servants of All: Servant-Leadership in a Historically Black Fraternity

Smith, JoAnn Lynette

Deaf of Deaf: The Ascribed Leaders of the American Deaf Community; A Case Study

Smith, Rachel A.

Finance Professors' Use of Case Discussion Leadership at Harvard and Darden MBA Programs

Walker, Mark

A Comparison Study of Protestants in the Workplace; What Effect does a Church Workplace Ministry have on Protestant Workers' Job Satisfaction, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and Organizational Commitment Within Certain Faith Integration Types?

Warren, Kelly B.

Differences in Conflict Management Styles of Leaders in Hierarchical and Congregational Organizational Structures

Wood, James A.

Development of Three Scales to Measure Leader Accountability

Wood, Michael S.

The Effects of Shared Leadership on the Stress and Satisfaction Outcomes of Church Management Team Members


Anderson, Daun

The Application of Q Methodology to Understanding the Experiences of Female Executives in Biotechnology Companies in Massachusetts: A Contextual Perspective
Beckham, Tony A. Social Legitimacy and the Political Styles of Protestant Congregations in the United States

Carson, Dana

Sincere Support or Subtle Subversion: Do Congregants Truly Endeavor to Integrate the Black Church to Embrace Multiculturalism?
Cherry Sr., Byron L. Airline Safety Versus Airline Security: A Case Study in a Post 9/11 Society

Cintrón , Nancy E.

The Effects of Biculturalism, Emotional Intelligence, and Acculturation on Motivation to Lead of Expatriate Latina Business Leaders and Entrepreneurs: An Exploratory Investigation
Crawford, Douglas B. The Bases for Executive Action: A Multiple Case Study of Leadership in the Highly Regulated Long-Term Health Care Industry

Dennis, Rob S.

Servant Leadership Theory: Development of the Servant Leadership Assessment Instrument
Dillman, Stephen W. Leading in the Land of Oz: Cross-Cultural Study of Servant Leadership in Australia

Dingman, Myra

The Effects Of Executive Coaching On Job-Related Attitudes

Donelson, William B.

Shepherd Leadership

Drury, Sharon

Employee Perceptions of Servant Leadership: Comparisons by Level and With Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Ellington, Kevin T. Strategic Church/Seminary Partnerships: An Emerging Paradigm of Contextually-Based Theological Education

Ellis, James K.

Listening and leadership: An investigative study into the listening practices of United States Coast Guard Enlisted Officer's in Charges

Fenton-LeShore, Karen

A Correlation Analysis Among Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Teacher Job Satisfaction, And Organizational Commitment in Low Performing New York City Public High Schools
Field, Darryl The Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Spirituality in Business Leaders

Fisch III, H.W. "Buddy"

Leadership in a Storytelling Organization:
A Case Study of SACS Accreditation through the School Portfolio
Fisher, Shelly M. Autonomous Learning in the Leadership Construct of Challenging the Process
Gilbert, Leroy Pastoral Selection Process in African-American Baptist High-Risk Churches: A Case Study

Gutierrez IV, Ben

Profitability in Heterogeneity: A Comparative Study
Hall, Jerry Duane A Multi-Case Study of Clergy Termination

Helland, Martha

Moments of Truth: Exploring the Meaning of Critical Incidents in the Development of Leader-Member Exchange Relationships
Ingram, Connie L. A Case Study of Executive Coaching as a Leadership Intervention in a Bureaucratic Organization

Innes, Pamela Brownrigg

The Influence of Leadership on Perceptions of Organizational Politics, Job Involvement, and Organizational Commitment

Lemaster, Gary David

An Investigation of the Relationship Between Individual-Culture Congruence and Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment in Selected Christian Colleges and Universities in Southern California
Marcil, William Matthew The Incidence of Clinical Depression Among Directors of Entry-Level Occupational Therapy Educational Programs in the United States and It's Relationship to Preferred Leadership Styles
Miller, Craig M. Transformational Leadership in the Office of The General Superintendent: A Pathway For Leading the Assemblies of God

Mintle, Norman C.

What Motivating Factors Contributed to the Founding of Christian Television Ministries: The Life Histories of Nine Founders
Morgan, Michael L. A Comparison of Hofstede's Power Distance Index and Webber's Church Preference Scores Between Christian and Non-Christian Bloggers: Church Formation in a Secondary Orality Culture

Palmer, Frances A.

Grief in the Workplace: A Case Study on How Grief Associated With the Death of a Child Affects the Organization

Perkins, D. Clay

An Exploratory Study of Patterns of Relationships Within Top Management Teams and Church Performance
Porr. Dean A. Leadership Behavior as a Determinant of Effectiveness for Convenience Store Managers

Sekulow, Jay Alan

Witnessing Their Faith. Religious Influences on the Supreme Court Justices and Their Opinions
Sessoms, Richard Walter The Relationship of Leadership Development Experiences to Kouzes and Posner's Five Practices of Exemplary Leaders

Sitter, Victoria

The Effects of a Leader's Emotional Intelligence on Employees' Trust in Their Leader and Employee Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Spangenburg, Janice M.

An Empirical Evaluation of the Effects of Federal Downsizing on Select
Organizational Variables
Stanley, Angelia Denise Leadership Styles and Conflict Management Styles: An Exploratory Study

Stevenson, Leonard J.

An Empirical Study Comparing the Psychological Factors That Describe Agency and Stewardship Theories In Principal–Steward Relationships
Straight, Bonnie J. A Case Study of the Development of Organizational Trust in a Multicultural University

Straiter, Kristin L.

A Study of the Effects of Supervisors' Trust of Subordinates and Their Organization on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment
Sullivan, Gene R. Enhancing Public Trust in the Accounting Profession: Using Professional Judgment Rather Than Personal Judgment in Resolving Accounting Ethics Dilemmas

Thornbury, Kimberly Carmichael

Christian Character at Union University:
A Comparison Between First and Fourth-Year Students
Swetnam, Therese M. Application of Role Theory to Nonprofit Organization Executives: A Case Study

Swinton, Vernon

An Investigation Of The Leadership Practice Of Encouragement And Its Correlation With Career Commitment And Career Withdrawal Cognitions In The Air Force Medical Service
Williamson, C. Dean The Development of Stewardship Relationships between Managers and Their Principals: A Study of the Effect of Three Organizational/Cultural Variables
Woods, Rebekah S. The Effects of Self-Efficacy, Transformational Leadership and Trust on Leadership Effectiveness of Senior Student Affairs Officers
Woods, Regina The Effects of Transformational Leadership, Trust, and Tolerance of Ambiguity on Organization Culture in Higher Education


Ayeni, Flora An Empirical Study Of The Impact Of Six Sigma Methodology On Organization  Financial Performance In The U.S.
Brown, Ron Self-Leadership and Effective Leadership Behaviors, as Observed by Subordinates
Bryant, Sandra Servant Leadership and Public Managers
Drake, Tim The Impact of Leadership Development Training Experiences on the Development of Senior Pastor's Effectiveness as Leaders of Member Churches in an American, Evangelical Denomination
Dutschke, Jeremy Chief Enrollment Manager Leadership Style and Enrollment Performance: A Correlation Study
Gerdes, Darin The Leadership Assumptions of American Statesmen During the Federal Convention and Ratification Debates, 1787-1789
Grace-Odeleye, Beverlyn An Examination of the Role of Forgiveness in the Leadership Practices of Women Leaders in Higher Education
Fischer, Kahlib Leadership in Faith-Based Nonprofits as Compared to a Covenantal Framework of Action: An Exploratory Study to Develop An Alternative Theoretical Framework for Assessing Organizational Processes and Influences
Hamon, Timothy T. Organizational Effectiveness as Explained by Social Structure In a Faith-Based Business Network Organization
Hartsfield, Michael The Internal Dynamics of Transformational Leadership: Effects of Spirituality, Emotional Intelligence, and Self-Efficacy
Holste, J. Scott A Study of the Effects of Affect-Based Trust and Cognition-Based Trust on Intra-Organizational Knowledge Sharing and Use
King, Jacque Perfectionism in Leadership: Exploring the Link between Leader Self-Esteem, Leader Self-Efficacy, Leader Narcissism, and Perfectionism
Hucks, John John Wesley and the Eighteenth Century Methodist Movement: A Model for Effective Leadership
King, Jerome Value Congruence and Commitment in Pastoral Ministry
Kull, Sherry The Ameliorating Effects of Transformational Leadership on Resistance to Change: Transformational Leadership and Conductivity for Schematic Conversion
Ledbetter, D. Steven Law Enforcement Leaders and Servant Leadership: A Reliability of the Organizational Leadership Assessment
McDaniel, Denise The "Combine Leadership Theory" Mobilizing Generation Y Into the Evangelization of the World in this Generation
Metler, Paul Exploring a Relationship Between Spiritual Disciplines Practice and Christian Character Development
Nelson, Lynn An Exploratory Study of the Application and Acceptance of Servant-Leadership Theory Among Black Leaders in South Africa
O'Brien, David Organizational Identity in the High Technology Corporation
Osborne, Gwen Are Apostles Entrepreneurs? The Need for Achievement as a Common Trait Between Entrepreneurs and Apostles in the International Coalition of Apostles (ICA)
Patterson, Kathleen Servant Leadership: A Theoretical Model
Pederson, Darla K.W. Vision Percolation through an Organization: A Naturalistic Inquiry
Pinner, Jonathan W. TQM Practices and Organizational Culture: Japanese Versus American Perspectives
Smith, Edward Martin Slow Death or Transformation? A Study of Southern Baptist Pastoral Leadership Styles Using the Competing Values Framework
Smith, Pearl Richardson Creating the "New IRS" - A Servant Led Transformation: A Case Study Describing How IRS Commissioner Charles O. Rossotti Employed Servant Leadership Principles to Transform One of America's Least Popular Institutions
Rosson, Thomas W. The Growth of Evangelicalism and Hofstede's Dimensions of National Culture
Sanderson, Patrick The Relationship Between Empowerment and Turnover Intentions in a Structured Environment: An Assessment of the Navy's Medical Service Corps
Seaborne, Wendell A Dissertation - An Examination of the Relationship Between Leadership Style and Empowerment
Tincher, Steven A Relationship Study of Self-Reported Work as Vocation and Work Attributes
Tocci, Dennis An Exploratory Field Study of the Impact of Communication Technology on Trust Within Virtual Teams
White, Stephen J. Power for Public Service: Servant Leadership and the Virginia Beach Quality Service System
Williams, Kenneth D. Developing a New Worldview: Naturalistic Inquiry into the Self-Organizing, Autopoietic Principles of Living Systems Theory in a Growing Church
Wright, Marshal H. Donor OPR and Values-Fit Incongruence: Predictors of Donations of Unrestricted Funds for 501(c)(3) Publicly-Supported, Tax-Exempt Nonprofit Organizations


Blount-White, Doreatha Perilla Education Reform: The Impact of Class Size Reduction and Team Teaching on Reading Achievement in Norfolk Public Schools
Boggs, William Brady An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Organizational Culture Types and a Balanced Scorecard of Effectiveness Measures in the Church
Contee-Borders, A. Karmalita A Case Study Defining Servant Leadership in the Workplace
Franz, Gerald P. The Compatibility of Practices in American Protestant Seminaries with a Biblical Model of Theological Education
Gallop, Faye Training Christian Leaders to Enhance Their Leadership Effectiveness Through Wellness Practices
Garmon, Fred Conflict Management Among Church of God Ministers (Cleveland, Tennessee): A Descriptive and Exploratory Report Investigating Possible Related Variables
Geisel, Richard T. Superintendent Succession in Public Education: A Study of Insiders and Outsiders
Ireland, David Minority Perspectives of Interracial Relationships in Large Multiracial Churches
Lane, Barry L. The Impact of Gender on Decision Making among Customized Training Administrators within the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU) System
Murray, Tamsen Community Congruence in a Multicultural Environment: A Case Study of Leadership Strategies at Anaheim First Christian Church
Olson-Staggs, Pamela Sue The Strategic Planning Process and Local Government: A Naturalistic Inquiry into the use of Electronic Meeting Systems Software in the Strategic Planning Process
Rogers, Diane Correlations & Frequencies in Senior Pastoral Mentoring & Subsequent Mentor Relations
Roy, Gwendolyn W. Character Education: A Program Design for Nine- to Eleven-Year-Old Youth in an Eastern Virginia Rural Public School Setting


Crocker, Gustavo Total Quality of Charitable Service: Profiles of Excellence in Christian Relief and Development Organizations
Dyer, Robert M. The Effects of Managed Care on Professional Physical Therapist Education
Herringshaw, Mark The Effects of Long-Distance Intercessory Prayer and Anti-Tobacco Communication on Teenager Intention to Smoke Cigarettes
Wiater, Diane M. Transformational Leadership: An Examination of Significant Leadership Development Life Experiences of Selected Doctor of Ministry Students


DellaVeccchio, Dorena Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Motivational Gifts
DeLisse, Regina Rationale for Computer Ethics Policies and a Model Policy For the North Carolina Community College System
Grooms, Linda Interaction in the Computer-Mediated Adult Distance Learning Environment:Leadership Development Through Online Education
Longbotham, Gail A Study of Factors Related to Process Improvement Project Team Success
Michel, Daniel P. Leadership development in a distributed learning environment: The influence of learning preferences on satisfaction
Russel, Robert Foster Exploring the Values and Attributes of Servant Leaders
Sayler, Glen William Jefferson Clinton: Leadership Values in an Age of Postmodernism
Stewart, Patricia The Role of Psychological Type and Critical Thinking in Doctoral Student Achievement
Walz, James Thomas

Laying the groundwork for sacrificial leadership: An interpretive biographical study of the life of Bruce Olson, missionary and leader to the indigenous tribes of Colombia and Venezuela

Webber, Malcolm A Comparison of Hofstede's Power Distance Index Between Mexican and Anglo-American Christians: The Influence of Culture on Preference for Decision-making Structures and Leadership Styles in American Churches
Yates, Peggy Instructional Leadership Behaviors of Principals and the Effects of a Balanced Beginning Reading Program in Exemplary Elementary Schools In Northeast North Carolina
Zigrang, Cheryl The Correlation between a Principal's Leadership Style and Teacher Personality, as Perceived by the Teacher, and its Effect on Teacher Job Satisfaction


Chadwick, Lloyd J. A Comparative Analysis of Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Public School Principals and Their Effects on School Culture
Chappell, Troy B. Leaders' discretion characteristics of commitment, locus of control and cognitive complexity as affecting radical organizational change outcomes (business process reengineering)
Harris, Christine A. The Relationship between Principal Leadership Styles and Teacher Stress in Low Socio-economic Urban Elementary Schools as Perceived by Teachers
McDonnell, Anne Marie Catholic Witness: Educating for Virtue